ABSTRACTS



The names of the speakers are organised according to their appearance in the  programme 
 




PLENARY SESSIONS


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O Projecto Estratégico do IEM na problemática de uma Idade Média Global

Amélia Aguiar

IEM- NOVA FCSH

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Options and Experiments: Defining ‘Global Middle Ages’

Naomi Standen

University of Birmingham


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How far is the distance to the end of the world? 
Centers, peripheries, and communications in high medieval Europe

Kurt Villads Jensen

Stockholm University

Our modern understanding of distance and proximity is still to a large extent reflecting the physical representation of the world as depicted in printed maps, with a centre in the middle of the geographical Western Europe, and a huge number of countries floating around along the edges of the map, in distant isolation from each other. This image is seemingly confirmed by the tacit assumption that communication is naturally land-based while this became actually the case only in the second half of the 19th century with drainage and railroads.
In the Middle Ages, long distance communications over water was much more common and efficient in Western Europe than transport over land. It meant in practise, that areas that may today be considered peripheral geographically, were in much closer contact with each other in the Middle Ages than often assumed.
Present day graphical understanding of centre and periphery has also lead to the prevalent assumption in historical research, that there was a delay in the transmittance of ideas and practises from centre to peripheries. It all began in France, and came to Iberia and to Scandinavia decades or sometimes centuries later. History thus becomes diachronic.
The presentation here will discuss the idea of centre and periphery, today and especially in the Middle Ages, and argue that instead of a diachronic presentation, a synchronic analysis of the dynamics between centres and peripheries much better helps to understand realities and thought patterns in the Middle Ages. Ideas of holy war, for example, were often formulated in the geographical centres, but the wars were propagated and fought in the peripheries, at the same time, and in an intellectual exchange of ideas with the centre.

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Imperium sine fine: the global power of Rome in a “post-Roman” world (6th-12th cent. CE)

Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 

Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Medieval Research

 

The enduring mega-narrative of the “Fall of Rome” in 476 CE in Western Europe ignores the continuity of the Roman Empire in the East centred on Constantinople up to 1453 CE or the at least partial “claim” of the Arab Empire emerging in the 7th century CE on “the inheritance of Rome” (as illuminated by Chris Wickham). Yet the glory of Roman power spread far beyond the frontiers of its empire and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus across Afro-Eurasia, manifested in objects such as coins or in narratives of imperial might and magnificence; the “Gesar of Phrom” even made into the epic traditions of Tibet and Mongolia. In this lecture various examples of the acquisition and reinterpretation of such artefacts of Roman power according to the needs and cultural preferences of holders of political or religious authority beyond the Mediterranean will be discussed; equally, the confrontation and combination with other “ancient” imperial traditions (such as of Persia, India, China or the empires of the Steppe) will be highlighted. The aim is to contribute to a global history of “Romanitas”/”Rhomaiosyne”.

 

 

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Approaching migration and demography in Medieval Europe through genomics

Veeramah Lab and Eduardo Carlos Amorim 

Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, NY

Few topics in European history are as controversial as the role that the so-called barbarian migrations played in the collapse of the Roman Empire and in the transformation of Europe from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages (i.e. the Migration Period). The extent to which this period involved mass invasions and how different populations from this period interacted are topics of vigorous historical and archaeological debates. Problematically, historical accounts describing this period are primarily restricted to the written record left by Romans, while the archeological evidence is ambiguous and incomplete. To better understand this key era that marks the dawn of modern European societies, we obtained ancient genomic DNA from a large number of samples from two key cemeteries (from Hungary and Northern Italy) that have been previously associated with the Lombards, a Germanic group that ruled Italy for almost 200 years, after migrating from the historical province of Pannonia. Our dense cemetery-based sampling allowed us to infer key aspects of the social organization of these groups, offering novel insights into European medieval history and recent human demography. For instance, we identified two genetically distinct groups in each of these cemeteries. These groups present different elements of material culture and mortuary practices. When combined with isotopic data, our results suggest that these groups coexisted and migrated together, but likely did not intermix and potentially had different social statuses and roles. Inference of relatedness demonstrated that individuals were often buried next to their biological kin, suggesting that this feature played a major role in the social organization of these peoples. In one of these cemeteries, graves are organized around a particularly large, higher status family that is highly militarized and may be analogous to “fara”, which have been ambiguously defined in historical texts. Moreover, preliminary inter-population analyses show partial genetic continuity between the two cemeteries, consistent with the supposed long-distance Lombard migration from Pannonia to Northern Italy.


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Imperium sine fine: the global power of Rome in a “post-Roman” world (6th-12th cent. CE)

Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 

Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences

The enduring mega-narrative of the “Fall of Rome” in 476 CE in Western Europe ignores the continuity of the Roman Empire in the East centred on Constantinople up to 1453 CE or the at least partial “claim” of the Arab Empire emerging in the 7th century CE on “the inheritance of Rome” (as illuminated by Chris Wickham). Yet the glory of Roman power spread far beyond the frontiers of its empire and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus across Afro-Eurasia, manifested in objects such as coins or in narratives of imperial might and magnificence; the “Gesar of Phrom” even made into the epic traditions of Tibet and Mongolia. In this lecture various examples of the acquisition and reinterpretation of such artefacts of Roman power according to the needs and cultural preferences of holders of political or religious authority beyond the Mediterranean will be discussed; equally, the confrontation and combination with other “ancient” imperial traditions (such as of Persia, India, China or the empires of the Steppe) will be highlighted. The aim is to contribute to a global history of “Romanitas”/”Rhomaiosyne”.

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What Can Early Medieval European Manuscripts Tell Us About a Global Middle Ages?

Adam Cohen 

Department of Art/University of Toronto

The Lindisfarne Gospels, one of the great achievements in medieval manuscript illumination, is representative of what scholars have called Insular art. The term refers to what roughly constitutes the modern British Isles and has the advantage of avoiding the sticky and often nationalistically tinged questions of origins for this and other manuscripts, such as the Book of Kells. But in English, insular is also a term that is used, usually perjoratively, to characterize isolation, a concept that is opposed to the ideas of globalism and motion that are the subject of this conference. Despite being made in a remote corner of Europe, the Lindisfarne Gospels does show evidence of a wider network beyond the Insular world. In my paper, I consider the different ways that people and books in Europe from roughly 500 to 1100 were involved in what might be termed a “global Middle Ages.” In addition to considering the movement of books and artists in this period, I also examine early medieval maps for what they reveal about contemporaneous ideas about the world and the degree to which people at that time consciously participated in a global Middle Ages.

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La diffusion du modèle de ´l’État moderne’ dans l’Occident médiéval : facteurs positifs et négatifs

Jean-Philippe Genet 

Professeur Emérite de l’Université Paris 1- Sorbonne/ LAMOP

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Rethinking Islamic Late Antiquity

Hugh Kennedy 

SOAS/University of London

This paper looks at the formation of the political culture of the caliphate in its golden age. It will argue that we can talk of a "state" during this period and that the state came into existence as a result of the circumstances of the early Muslim conquests. I will look at the reasons for the survival of systems of public taxation from antiquity to Islam and the reasons why this occurred and the evolution of the idea of 'sultan' as a political concept.


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Far Away Worlds Seeking Each Other. Migrating Ecumenical World Vievs ca. 1250-ca. 1450

Angelo Cattaneo 

CHAM-FCSH/NOVA

Between circa 1250 and 1450 perceptions and representations of the Eurasian oikumene were shaped by migrating world views based on knowledge and knowledge structures that had been accumulated and created over many centuries and mutually disseminated in the contexts of trade, war, religious proselytism, forced diasporas, and nomadism. These processes involved several civilizations and people, from the Iberian to the Korean peninsula. In order to highlight some of these phenomena, this paper develops a comparative cultural study of Fra Mauro’s mappa mundi (Venice, 1450) and the Honil kangni yŏktae kukto chi to (Integrated map  of the lands and regions and of the historical kingdoms and their capitals) also known as Kangnido (Hanseong, Seoul , ca. 1480). The two maps are among the most articulated, still extant, representations of the medieval oikumene developed within European and Asian civilizations around the mid-fifteenth century. While we could consider them to be apparently fully heterogeneous artefacts – for their language, contents, sources, contexts of production, scopes and reception – their comparison offers interesting points of analysis, which enrich our understanding of medieval ecumenical projections. These two mid-fifteenth-century world cosmographies were largely based on knowledge that was accumulated and circulated in the Mediterranean sea basin, Central Asia, Persia, Mongolia and China at the time of the Mongol expansion and the foundation of the Yuan Dynasty (1278-1368). Both maps prove the existence of connections between several civilizations of the Eurasian continent, in a polycentric world connected and shaped by the foundation of empires, the creation of trade circuits, long-distance knowledge as well as religious proselytisms networks. These processes found in the founding of the Mongolian-Chinese Yuan Empire the fundamental catalyst that, a hundred and fifty years later, allowed in the West, in Venice – but also in Mallorca, if we think of the Catalan Atlas – and in the East, at the time of the foundation of the Chosŏn dynasty, the envisioning of powerful imagines mundi.

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L’empire de l’Église

Dominique Iogna-Prat 

CéSor/ École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales

La notion d’empire bénéficie d’un notable regain d’actualité en contexte de post-modernité, au point de relever d’un champ d’étude propre, l’“impériologie”. Dans un monde globalisé, certains analystes y voient le cadre de gestion idéal de la diversité des cultures, des langues ou des religions, l’Empire s’opposant à l’uniformisation et au nivellement générés par l’État-nation. “Empire” est même devenu, articulé à la notion de “multitude”, une référence de l’altermondialisme philosophique pour dénoncer la faillite des grandes catégories politiques modernes. Une pareille remise en cause, au nom de nouvelles dynamiques impériales, de l’ordre politique ancien invite à faire retour sur la notion d’empire dans le long terme de l’histoire occidentale, qu’on ne saurait dissocier de celle de l’Église si l’on cherche à prendre la mesure de la sacralité et de la force transcendante de l’institution porteuse de souveraineté.

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The Manuscript-private-vertical Public Sphere of the Sixteenth-Century New World

Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra 

Department of History- University of Texas at Austin

The demographic catastrophe that followed the Conquest created the conditions for the sweeping reorganization of several indigenous and European ancien regimes. The Spanish Monarchy presided over a reactive state that issued laws at the petitioners’ requests. A public market of grievances transmogrified into a mountain of contradictory laws (cedulas) that, in turn, led to the creation of juntas to arbitrate, settle disputes, and issue new laws. Hundreds of thousands of new laws, in turn, sparked countless bitter trials and endless litigation. This world of bottom up jurisprudence through petitioning (gobierno), distributive justice (gracia), and justice (litigation) was deeply productive of new knowledge. Petitions, probanzas, litigation, and mercedes constituted the gears a machine of knowledge production. This machinery churned out volumes of manuscripts. It had little to do with an early- modern Habermasian print-culture-cum-public-sphere. Rather than yielding knowledge that was horizontal and public, this machine produced knowledge that was “private”, vertical, and transacted through manuscript. The system created a vast, unparalleled archive of ethnographic, political, economic, natural, cosmographic and statistical documentation and new understandings of objectivity that that historians have yet to plumb and understand.

 


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PARALLEL SESSIONS

 

Northern Saracens and pagan Muslims: the Baltic Crusade as a semi-global phenomenon.

Rasa Mažeika

Univ. of Toronto, New College

One way in which medieval Europe was surely in motion is pilgrimage and the Crusades which adopted the language of pilgrimage.  The northern reaches of the crusading endeavor, called the Baltic Crusades by modern historians, are now no longer ignored in general crusade histories, yet are still in a separate chapter, as it were, just as thematics of Eastern Europe are in general set apart in separate sections of conferences.  Yet the same crusaders who travelled to the Baltic area often participated in other far-flung theatres of war – famous fighters such as king John of Luxemburg and the future Henry IV of England, the future Emperor Charles IV, famous writers of chivalric epics like Guillaume de Machaut, Philippe de Mézières and Guillebert de Lannoy, as well as hundreds of German, English, French, Flemish and other European knights.  The Teutonic Order which spearheaded the Baltic Crusades began in Palestine and had its headquarters in Vienna at a time when its main battles were in Prussia. 

More important from a medieval perspective, the northern crusades were equated with crusading in the Holy Land in remission grants and in popular romantic literature, and the pagan Lithuanians were even called Saracens in some sources.  My paper seeks to restore this medieval perspective to the northern aspect of the circulation of Europe’s knights and to treat the Baltic Crusades as a semi-global phenomenon in which patterns of contact, interchange and motivation mirrored those seen in more southern climes.

 


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“Rumo a Oriente: matrizes medievais no foral da cidade de Macau”

Filipa Roldão

CHSC-UC/CH-UL/FCT

A atribuição a cidades ultramarinas com presença portuguesa de corpora documentais, fundadores da experiência municipal medieval do Reino de Portugal, como os forais, interpela-nos sobre a longevidade e necessária reformulação de modelos institucionais urbanos em novos contextos geo-políticos e sociais. A evidência documental deste processo em cidades como Goa, Macau, Baía ou Luanda (retomando, por exemplo, aqui, a clássica proposta de Charles Boxer) convida à identificação e análise detalhada dos textos que circularam entre escrivaninhas de cidades tão distantes, como Évora e Macau, com o intuito de reflectirmos sobre padrões fundadores e dinâmicas de sobrevivência e adaptação. Propomos, nesta comunicação, uma análise fina ao documento que corporiza este processo para o caso da cidade de Macau: o Foral, regalias e privilégios concedidos à cidade de Macau na China (1596-1756). A 10 de Abril de 1586, o vice-rei D. Duarte de Meneses confirmava à cidade de Macau a sua organização em câmara municipal, e, em simultâneo, concedia-lhe os privilégios da cidade de Évora, a pedido dos seus moradores. A 3 de Março de 1595, esta decisão conhecia ratificação régia. No Foral, regalias e privilégios evidenciam-se traços de uma herança medieval transportada “rumo a Oriente” que procuraremos identificar e contextualizar, tendo por base o que se conhece acerca da composição da escrivaninha e do arquivo da cidade de Évora no período tardo-medieval, por um lado, e, por outro, da composição do recente e crescente arquivo de uma câmara municipal, como o que existia na pulsante cidade portuária de Macau, em séculos subsequentes. Com este estudo de caso, procuraremos responder afirmativamente à pergunta lançada pela organização do encontro, centrando a nossa atenção na dimensão da circulação de escritos institucionais, num amplo espectro geográfico e cronológico.

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The Middle Ages in the New World?: Influence and Modulation of Medieval Europe in the Visual Culture of Viceregal Hispanic-America.

Daniel González Erices

Univ. de Chile

Pondering the recent discussions on the diachronic and anachronic singularities of the Middle Ages, it seems possible to acknowledge the dissemination of both medieval mentality and systems of representation well beyond the chronological and geographical limits long-established by conventional scholarship. Thus, even when the term "Baroque" is a commonplace in the study of American-Hispanic colonial visual culture, a more thorough approach would unveil a temper akin to the concerns of medieval society. The agency of the so-called New World around Christian iconography, materiality, and worship remained closely connected to the medieval Weltanschauung, a conception that instead had fallen into obsolescence in modern Europe. Attempting to assess these issues, the aim of the present communication is to explore viceregal religious images as devices that reflected some of the problems that were characteristic of the Middle Ages, although centuries after its decline in the old continent. Romanesque wood sculptures and Gothic- Flemish altarpieces, along with eschatological and trinitarian themes as well, will be considered as important precedents for illustrating the expansion of medieval constructs in New Spain and Southern Andes. However, examining this potential scene of the Middle Ages in the discovered territories, it will be crucial to recognise also the negotiation of such influences in its encounter with local models. Ultimately, these observations might contribute to configure a more comprehensive panoramic understanding of the medieval cosmos.

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Worlds in Motion: A New Literary History of the Global Middle Ages?

Shazia Jagot1 Rosa M. Rodríguez Porto2

1University of Southern Denmark – Centre for Medieval Literature, 2University of York – Centre for Medieval Literature

The tales of Alexander, the animal fables of Kalila wa Dimna, the mi’raj stories recounting the ascension of the Prophet Muhammad, are all narratives that were transmitted and translated along the broadly defined Silk Road, later to become pan-European narratives widely disseminated in Latin and a sea of vernacular languages. As such, these narratives expand the literary history of the Middle Ages far beyond the geographical borders of Europe. This paper aims at re-conceptualizing these narratives in a collaborative, cross-disciplinary way, able to encompass the very global nature of medieval culture through a sustained engagement with both text and image. By focusing on the analysis of the Liber Scale Machometi and in the Castilian and French translations of Kalila wa Dimna, we will interrogate the appropriation and transformation of these narrative forms across spaces and places as far apart as Central Asia and Castile. It is our contention—shared in the research carried out at the Centre for Medieval Literature—that the manuscripts preserving these texts functioned as ‘portable worlds’ through which it is possible to trace back the embedded histories linking objects, readers and places, further disorienting the notions of ‘East’ and ‘West’ in the act of bringing back to life the imagined realms they still encapsulate.

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La teoría historiográfica aplicada a los procesos históricos globales: por una historia medieval global

Francisco José Díaz Marcilla

IEM- FCSH NOVA

El presente estudio pretende establecer una serie de consideraciones generales acerca de cómo podría ser afrontado un estudio global sobre la historia mundial durante el período medieval.
La teoría historiográfica, en cuanto mecanismo de aproximación a realidades geográficamente distantes, pero sociológica y antropológicamente cercanas – al tener al hombre como sujeto de la acción histórica –, otorga una serie de categorías de análisis del proceso diacrónico esenciales para entender la evolución del conjunto de las civilizaciones.
Dado el enfoque teórico del trabajo, el objeto de análisis de las diferentes realidades históricas versará sobre el modo en que la visión historiográfica ha plasmado el devenir cronológico de las distintas civilizaciones, tratando de identificar los siguientes aspectos discursivos:
- los parámetros utilizados para distinguir las fases evolutivas, bajo el modelo continuidad/cambio;
- los parámetros asociados a las identificaciones de las características del cuerpo social y el entramado económico de cada conjunto humano estudiado por la historiografía;
- las peculiaridades de carácter cultural que han permeado los discursos analíticos por parte de los historiadores sobre las realidades históricas;
- los paradigmas bajo los cuales se ha efectuado el discurso historiográfico.
Estudiando, por tanto, las producciones científicas de carácter generalista sobre las historias de Europa, Asia, América y África durante el período definido como “medieval”, se tratarán de delinear las semejanzas y diferencias de carácter analítico que permitan conjugar un discurso común para el planteamiento de una historia medieval global.

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Paroles et images au service du pouvoir et de la piété dans le monde latin médiéval

Anna Maria Migdal

Univ. Lumière Lyon II

En soulevant la question portant sur les rapports entre paroles et images dans le contexte officiel,lié au cérémonial aussi bien religieux qu’à caractère laïc, nous souhaitant nous pencher surleur impact réciproque, compte tenu des sources paléographiques et des objets d’art subsistants.
Il s’agit, d’abord, de reconstituer le développement du modèle d’un objet bien singulier,impliquant les deux principaux aspects de la révélation et de la divulgation des messages idéaux, moraux, de même que politiques ou identitaires. Ainsi, un feretron – panneau processionnel,semble jouer un rôle non négligeable dans ce processus de resserrement des liens socioculturels des communautés locales, lors des certaines fêtes, comme un moyen de communication massive, comportant des enjeux psychologiques inhérents à de telles manifestations.
Nous avons donc à considérer un large spectre de problèmes, très peu étudiés dans l’ensemble jusqu’à’ présent, allant d’une analyse formelle et iconographique, à une interprétation sémantique relativement à l’usage fonctionnel des objets donnés. Afin de saisir cette conjonction entre image et texte, relavant de l’endoctrinement, il nous faut désigner leur fonctionnement complémentaire. Pour y parvenir, nous avons l’intention de rassembler les créations similaires les plus éloquentes, répandues sur le territoire européen durant le Moyen Âge, et connues jusqu’à la Contre-Réforme. C’est la spécificité desdits panneaux faisant partie de rites et de drames médiévaux qui attire tout particulièrement notre attention, en comparaison des objets d’art provenant du monde ibérique, des Pays-Bas et du royaume de France, sans omettre de mentionner à ce propos le milieu des Slaves occidentaux.

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L'Evolution des différents Fonts dans les Eglises Coptes à travers les siècles

Dr. Mary MAGDY ANWAR

Professeur Assistant à la faculté de Tourisme et d’Hôtellerie Université d’Alexandrie, Section Guide.

Bien que le christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les chrétiens priaient dans les cryptes et les tombes. Ils n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après la promulgation du décret de Milan de l'empereur Constantin le premier en 313ap.J.C.

A partir de cette date, le christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées sous différents styles.

L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques fonts et bassins pour différents usages. Parmi ces bassins nous pouvons compter le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles, c'est-à-dire il se trouvait au début du 3ème siècle dans les cours des maisons puis il fut transporté dans les cours des églises. Les églises contenaient également le bassin nommé "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fete de l'Epiphanie. En outre, le bassin appelé "El Lakan" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciens églises et monastères. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Au cours des siècles, quelques-uns de ces bassins subirent des modifications concernant leur forme et leur emplacement dans les églises et les monastères et d'autres furent totalement disparus.

Ainsi,notre recherche vise-t-elle à mettre l'accent sur les différences entre ces bassins , leur évolution à travers les siècles; à mettre en relief leur importance et leur fonction en exposant des exemples variés figurant dans les différents églises et anciens monastères puisque ces fonts représentent une partie non-négligeable du patrimoine copte, qui devrait être mentionnée dans l'explication qu'on donne aux sites monumentales touristiques.

 

Mots clés : l’architecture, fonts, patrimoine.

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La musique liturgique à la Chartreuse d’Évora (Portugal)

Océane Boudeau

CESEM/ FCSH NOVA

La découverte récente dans une collection privée d’un antiphonaire de l’unique Chartreuse portugaise, le Mosteiro da Cartuxa de Santa Maria de Scala Coeli d’Évora, a relancé l’intérêt porté à cet établissement religieux et à son fonds liturgique. Ce dernier comporte sept manuscrits avec des notations musicales, essentiellement des livres pour l’office. Les plus anciens datent de la fin du xvie siècle, période qui correspond à la fondation de la Chartreuse d’Évora. Mais la tradition liturgique que contiennent ces livres de chant remonte au xiie siècle et à la fondation la maison-mère, la Grande Chartreuse située près de Grenoble (France).
Ma communication consistera en une présentation des caractéristiques liturgiques et musicales des manuscrits de la Chartreuse d’Évora qui relèvent de la tradition médiévale. Les quelques évolutions qui apparaissent à la fin du xvie siècle sont-elles visibles dans les manuscrits portugais ou bien les Chartreux d’Évora ont-ils ignoré ces apports ? De même, le fonds du Mosteiro da Cartuxa de Santa Maria de Scala Coeli comporte-t-il des particularités musicales et liturgiques et, le cas échéant, sont-elles communes aux manuscrits cartusiens espagnols[1] ? Il s’agira donc de considérer la tradition cartusienne en l’inscrivant dans la longue durée afin de mettre en évidence son évolution.
[1] Dans sa thèse consacrée aux manuscrits cartusiens de la Vénétie, Cristina Bernardi avait ainsi distingué deux branches au sein de la même tradition (Cristina Bernardi, Testimonianze liturgico-musicali delle certose venete antifonari dei secoli XV-XVII, Università degli studi di Padova, thèse de doctorat, [s.d.], p. 191).

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Across the Sea: Circularity, Exchange, and Dispersal in Occitanian Crusade Song

Rachel May Golden

Univ. of Tennessee

In closing his song Cortesamen vuoill comenssar, troubadour Marcabru dispatches the song itself across the sea to fellow troubadour Jaufre Rudel, away on Second Crusade. As the song leaves Marcabru—his pen, his voice, his home—it enacts its own geographical mobility and presence, journeying to distant lands where Marcabru himself does not go.
This paper demonstrates how 12th-century Occitanian Crusade songs are performative in engaging with East-West travel and in using circular structures in music and poetry as emblematic of motion across the globe. These Crusade songs mirror medieval realities by variously suggesting the linear and circular, round-trip motions performed by Jerusalem-bound Crusaders themselves.  Fittingly, the Crusade songs too, like the Crusaders, dispersed over time and space, as they were reinterpreted by singers, scribes, and listeners. 
Examining troubadour songs by Jaufre Rudel and Marcabru, I read concepts of 12th-century Crusade travel through notions of place and circularity, both literal and metaphorical, in ways that reveal cultural interpenetrations, geographical motion otramar, and aural and written receptions of troubadour chansons. Crusade song responded to real Crusade challenges, geographical preconceptions, worldviews regarding foreign lands and peoples, and notions of “sacred geography” that linked living landscapes with abstract theology.  When optimism reigned and victory seemed close, Crusade songs correspondingly portrayed Jerusalem as near and tenable, a place right “here,” even as it sat at the center of world. Contrastingly, distance-related tropes portray Saracens as essentially “Other,” as enemies of a fundamentally different place, in a Holy Land over “there,” entirely remote.

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«E pur si muove…! » From Lisbon to Coimbra and back. A University in motion throughout Portugal between the 13th and the 16th centuries

Armando Norte1,André Leitão2

1CHSC-UC; CH-UL, 2 CH-UL; Interuniversity Doctoral Programme in History (PIUDHist)

During the final years of the 12th century and throughout the 13th century the Christian Europe intellectual landscape suffered a substantial change of paradigm, largely due to the establishment of the first medieval universities, inextricably connected with the emergence of a new class of men within: the scholars – or the intellectuals, as Jacques Le Goff called them. In fact, since the creation of the first universities in Paris and Bologna, the movement of foundation of studia generalia quickly widespread to almost all the European realms. In less than a century, a significant number of cities hosted in their utter core these new universities, in processes sometimes spontaneous (ex consuetudine), but often conducted or supported by several kinds of authorities (ex privilegio).
In spite of its processes of foundation, an overall survey of the universities of this period allow us to identify a large amount of common characteristics, which were kept unchanged from the earlier establishments to the latter’s, namely being exclusively attended by men, most of them clerics; the similar clothes and the observance of identical rites; the use of Latin as the sole language of communication within the learning system; a common background of books and literate authorities chosen to support the lessons; a common method of learning (the scholasticism); and the confinement to a restrict field of studies taught – just to refer the most pointed out features.
Considering all these elements, the question of whether or not is it possible to speak of a “Global Middle Ages” can and should be put forward. But this enquiry has to be taken with extreme caution, bearing in mind a significant number of nuances, such as the different status and wealth between the diverse academic corpora, the distinct provenance of both teachers and students, the often difficult conviviality between these men, or the preference revealed in each university to teach specific areas of knowledge to the detriment of other. Yet, other singularities can be found, one of them being the type of foundation: ex novo (newly created and firmly established in a place) or ex secessionis (created by cellular division, leading to the creation of a new institution, in a different place, by a contingent of scholars belonging to a previous university). On this issue, no case is more curious than the Portuguese one, which has no parallel within the other contemporary studia generalia: a university (always the same) in a permanent translatio, being subsequently transferred from Lisbon to Coimbra and back, since its foundation in the final years of the 13th century, until its final stop in Coimbra in the year of 1537. The causes for such a phenomenon is what will try to clarify. After all, not just teachers and scholars were in motion in medieval times. After the foundation of the Portuguese studium, for the first and the last time in the Middle Ages, one university was in motion as well.

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Il notariato come fenomeno globale: notai d’Europa nel Tardo Medioevo

Stefano Santarelli

Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata

Oggetto del mio intervento vuole essere una riflessione sul notariato medievale – italiano e romano nello specifico – nel quadro della più ampia ricezione del fenomeno in ambito europeo. Durante la mia attività di ricerca, che si rivolge nello specifico ad un notaio trecentesco di Roma (Antonius Laurentii Stephanelli de Scambiis), ho avuto modo di allargare il mio spettro di indagine e di riscontrare, per il periodo finale del Medioevo, la sostanziale “globalità” nel contesto europeo occidentale di un fenomeno così fondamentale quale quello del notariato. Per gli sviluppi e l’importanza che esso ha avuto nella penisola, l’Italia viene indicata come la terra culla del notariato, ma percorsi simili a quelli che portarono alla conquista della publica fides e alla nascita dell’instrumentum publicum si ebbero, durante i secoli medievali, anche nelle altre aree d’Europa – come Francia e penisola iberica – in cui il diritto romano si era fortemente radicato; un notariato dotato già di una propria fisionomia viene poi portato, dal XIII-XIV secolo in poi, anche nell’Europa insulare dai chierici inviati dalla chiesa di Roma, i quali facilitano anche l’omogeneizzazione delle pratiche a livello continentale. Il mio obiettivo è dimostrare, attraverso opportuni esempi, come tra uno scrittore di documenti privati italiano del tempo ed uno europeo sussistesse una sostanziale consonanza di prassi e strategie, e che quindi è lecito annoverare a tutti gli effetti il notariato tra le prove delle connessioni, del dinamismo e della circolazione di modelli comuni nel Medioevo.

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Imaginem nostram pro testimonio opponere facimus: strategie di autenticità e validazione dei documenti medievali illustrati.

Veronica De Duonni

Univ. degli Studi di Salerno

La formula imaginem nostram pro testimio opponere conclude spesso i documenti ufficiali nel medioevo. Essa equivale all’imposizione del sigillo che garantisce la validità del documento. Il sigillo è un segno di autorità per eccellenza. La contraffazione, l’irriconoscibilità o la dispersione del sigillo annulla di fatto l’autorevolezza di un documento. Quando si tratta di documenti illustrati, spesso copie, come viene restituita l’immagine del sigillo? L’imago che dà forza ai documenti può assumere le forme più diverse: sovrani in maestà, vescovi, abati, simboli di città e figure allegoriche. Questo intervento si propone si esaminare le immagini di autorità che accompagnano i documenti illustrati, immagini che rievocano un tempo passato e spesso lo reinventano. Inoltre, si farà un breve accenno anche ad una tipologia libraria particolare: i regesti. Nei cartulari “certains éléments figurés de la charte originale passent parfois dans la copie du cartulaire, tels les croix, invocations symboliques, monogrammes et autres signes de validation sans oublier les sceaux”. Come nel Regesto di S. Angelo in Formis, in cui 25 medaglioni, contenenti i busti disegnati degli emanatori, sigillano i privilegi, restituendo l’originaria forma del sigillo anche per la presenza deitituli, nei documenti le immagini, «l’être là», si collocano a garanzia della validità e inviolabilità del contenuto.

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From West to East. The Transformation and the Diffusion of a Medieval Image in Romanian Religious Iconography

Silvia Marin Barutcieff

University of Bucharest, Romania

Between 1300 and 1500, Christopher became one of the most popular saints of the Roman-Catholic tradition. Following the great plague epidemic, the occurrence of his visual representations grew increasingly widespread within the iconographic programs in churches. Aid and intercession were frequently beseeched from this Christian hero, who had joined the Holy Helpers’ paradigm during the 14th century. Christopher’s figure also reached the Eastern extremity of the Latinity, namely Wallachia. Although pictures of this giant had existed since the 14th century in the Catholic edifices of the neighboring Transylvania, they entered Wallachia only at the end of a medieval period that had extended here until the 1700s. The first iconographical type appearing in the local churches was the Christ-bearer, so beloved in the West following Jacobus da Varagine’s hagiographic anthology. Although originally a Western version, its presence in the Romanian territory is owed to a Greek intermediary.
This visual prototype of Saint Christopher, the only one present in Wallachia during the „autumn of the Middle Ages”, enjoyed a wide circulation, passing from Northern Italy to Greece, and subsequently spreading to Albania, Bulgaria and further away.
The present paper aims to investigate the circulation of the earliest type of Saint Christopher’s old Romanian iconographic representations (out of eleven types identified by the author), the dissemination in the Orthodox iconography of  a Western version taken over by the Greek culture, and further propagated along Eastern routes. In the context of the chronological discrepancy between the Romanian culture and the Western one, as well as the context of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, when interest in the figure of Christopher dwindled to the point of disappearing altogether across the Catholic areas, his representations migrated to Eastern Europe. Which were the circumstances surrounding this metamorphosis, who were the actors of this transfer, how was the image reformeddisseminated and received – these are the questions for which we seek answers.

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Meta Discourse of the Iconographies of Power: From Christian East to Christian West

Elena Kashina

York Universit

This paper intends to consider the artistic language of geo-political definition of West European states and that of Russia as sharing a single source, the Christian Byzantine concept of the unity of divine and earthly power and of invoking the divine to confer authority on the sovereign.
I shall look at the reigns of Ivan III and Ivan IV, during whose reign Moscow completed her transition from the capital of a principality to that of a centralised state.
The novelty of my approach lies in my looking at the latter process in the context of the formation of West-European states and courts, and in that of the fall of Byzantium. These two perspectives lend revealing lenses through which to analyse the evolution of the respective paradigms of symbolic and metaphorical legalization of power in Russia and in Western Europe. I argue that the artistic language of representing sovereignty which evolved in Russia during the reigns of Ivan III and Ivan IV was intended to mirror corresponding expression in Western Europe, in particular, in Italian polities, although not at all limited to them. I contend, among other things, that in order to position the emerging state within the system of Western courts Ivan III and Ivan IV employed the language of political diplomacy already in use there.
The discussion shall conclude by stating that by the 16th century both the West-European and the new Russian courts had reconfigured their shared frame of reference, the archetypal cultural idiom of Christianity and lineage into a paradigm of asserting sovereign authority. This was a mutually intelligible language of geo-political self-definition, both in communication between the West-European courts, and that between Western Europe and the new court of Muscovy, and as such effectively served as a meta-vocabulary for European discourse of sovereign power. 

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“Black” or “Eúxenos” (=Hospitable) Sea? Artistic networks in the Black Sea during the period of the Palaeologan dynasty in Byzantium (1261-1453).

Nikolaos Fyssas

 

Mount Sinai Foundation (Athens); Sinaitic Archive of Monuments 

In the new world created after the Latin expansion in the East during the 4th Crusade, after the capture of Constantinople (1204) and its subsequent restitution as capital of the Byzantine Empire until its final fall to the Ottoman Turks (1453), the Black Sea witnessed the activation of commercial –mainly- networks, making the way for embassies, pilgrims, adventurers, artists. The artistic networks, namely, were further consolidated by the spiritual ideals of the Christian populations and communities of the Black Sea, mostly belonging to the Orthodox Church and thus embracing the spiritual and artistic “avant guarde” of the orthodox metropolis of the Late Medieval East: the city of Constantinople during the Palaeologan dynasty (1261-1453).
In this perspective, the well studied cases of the Constantinopolitan painters Manuel Eugenikos, who worked under the patronage of the Dadiani rulers in Georgia, and the renown Theophan the Greek, active in Crimea before moving to the Russian North and becoming  teacher of Andrej Rublev, should be studied as traces of a whole. Furthermore, trying to reveal the expansion of this network, created by travelling artists and developed by exchangeable artifacts (icons, illuminated manuscripts), a considerable number of monuments should be taken in mind, monuments traced not only on the “Greek” south coast (Trabzon) of the Black Sea, but also in Georgia (e.g. Zarzma, Ubisi, Likhne Bitsvinta, Nabakh’tevi), Crimea (Theodosia) and Wallachia (Curtea de Argeş) as well.

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THE SUPPLY OF GLASS ON THE IBERIAN PENINSULA BETWEEN THE 6TH AND 12TH CENTURY CE: TRADITION AND INNOVATION 

Nadine Schibille & Jorge de Juan Ares

IRAMAT-CEB, UMR 5060, CNRS, Orléans, France

The last 20 years have witnessed major breakthroughs in the study of first Millennium glasses from the Mediterranean, through the establishment of discrete compositional groups and the excavation and characterisation of primary glass production installations in Egypt and the Levant.[1-9] Glasses from these primary glassmaking centres have been identified at consumer sites throughout the Mediterranean. This shows that glass was a thing that travelled, and tracking its movements presents us with the unique opportunity to trace patterns of commerce in the Mediterranean and beyond. Little is known, however, about the changing distribution patterns and supply of glass on the Iberian Peninsula between the sixth and twelfth century CE.[12] For example, the continuous supply of near eastern glass up to the seventh century (and possibly later) or the impact of the Umayyad conquest of Iberia on the glass making industries are poorly understood. This presentation takes a large-scale perspective to elucidate the supply of glass on the Iberian Peninsula between the sixth and twelfth century CE based on the chemical characteristics of glass from various sites (e.g. Alicante, Almería, Asturias, Recópolis, Silves, Vascos) in relation to known primary glass production groups and the transition from mineral soda as fluxing agent to the use of plant-ash in the early Islamic period. These data can illustrate changing supply patterns and the development of an Iberian glass industry, and highlight the potential for glass as a proxy to re-evaluate the cultural and economic connectivity of the Mediterranean.

REFERENCES

1. Freestone (2005) The provenance of ancient glass through compositional analysis. Mat Res Soc Symp Proc 852: 195-208.
2. Freestone (2006) Glass production in late antiquity and the early Islamic period: a geochemical perspective. In: Maggetti, Messiga (eds) Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage. 201-216.
3. Gorin-Rosen (1995) Hadera, Bet Eli'ezer. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 13: 42-43.
4. Gorin-Rosen (2000) The ancient glass industry in Israel. In: Nenna (ed) La route du verre. Lyon. 49-63.
5. Nenna (2015) Primary glass workshops in Graeco-Roman Egypt. In: Freestone, Bailey, Jackson (eds) Glass in the Roman Empire. Oxford. 1-22
6. Nenna et al. (2000) L’atelier primaires et secondaires en Égypte à l’époque Gréco-Romaine. In: Nenna (ed) La route du verre. 97-112.
7. Nenna et al. (1997) L’atelier de verrier de Lyon, du 1er siècle après J.-C. Revue d’Archéométrie 21: 81-87.
8. Picon, Vichy (2003) D'Orient en Occident: l'origine du verre à l'époque romaine et durant le haute Moyen Âge. In: Foy, Nenna (eds) Échanges et commerce du verre. 17-31.
9. Thirion-Merle et al. (2003) Un nouvel atelier primaire dans le Wadi Natrun (Égypte). Bulletin de l'Association Française pour l'Archéologie du verre: 21-24.
10. Schibille, Freestone (2013) Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo al Volturno. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76479. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076479.
11. Schibille et al. (2016) Comprehensive Chemical Characterisation of Byzantine Glass Weights. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0168289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168289.
12. de Juan Ares & Schibille (2017) La Hispania Antigua y medieval a través del vidrio: La aportación de la arqueometría. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio.

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Glass bracelets in medieval Portugal: insights on production and circulation

Inês Coutinho1,2,3, Francisca Pulido Valente 1,2, Luís C. Alves 4 and Teresa Medici 1

1 Research Unit VICARTE, “Glass and Ceramic for the Arts”, FCT NOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal, 2 Department of Conservation and Restoration, FCT NOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal, 3 Instituto de Estudos Medievais IEM - FCSH NOVA, Portugal, 4 C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal

About the circulation and possible production of glass in Portugal during the Middle Ages there is still a lot to learn and to discover. The existence of production of glass in the country is reported by historical documents dated from the 15th century onwards; however, glass objects have been unearthed from several medieval archaeological sites. From a morphological point of view, the glass vessels circulating in Portugal in this period show clear analogies with objects widespread in medieval Europe. In addition, less common specimens were found whose use, in this chronology, appears restricted to the Iberian Peninsula (Medici 2014; Coutinho et al. 2016).
This presentation will focus on the presence and circulation in Portugal of glass bracelets. After the end of the Roman Empire, the use of these personal adornments was limited to the Palestinian region and the Byzantine world; during the 14th and 15th century they were still widespread in the Middle East, manly as a part of the material culture produced in the Islamic lands, while in Europe, as far as we know, their use appears restricted to Spain and Portugal (Medici 2014).
In Portugal, glass bracelets are common finds in archaeological contexts from the late Medieval to the Early Modern periods. The fact that the use of wearing glass bracelets is common in the Iberian Peninsula, being almost unrecorded in other coeval European regions, supports the hypothesis that these adornments could be part of the Islamic cultural inheritance that resulted from decades of occupation.
An archaeometric approach will also be part of this study, and the glass chemical composition will be determined by μ-PIXE. This will allow to make proposals concerning the glass origin, as well as to discuss the glass trading routes during this chronological period.

References:
Coutinho, I., S. Coentro, T. Medici, L.C. Alves, and M. Vilarigues. 2016. “First Archaeometric Study on Medieval Glass Found in Beja (Southern Portugal).” Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies. doi:dx.doi.org/10.1080/17546559.2016.1205752.
Medici, Teresa. 2014. “Vidros Da Terra. O Vidro Tardomedieval E Moderno Em Portugal (Séculos XVI-XVII). O Contributo Da Arqueologia.” Universidade de Coimbra.

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Artistic and technical exchange in medieval stained glass production – the first panels of the Monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória 

Márcia Vilarigues1,2 and Pedro Redol3

1 Department of Conservation and Restoration, FCT NOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica,Portugal, 2 Research Unit VICARTE, “Glass and Ceramic for the Arts”, FCT NOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal, 3 Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitória, 2440-109 Batalha, Portugal

The earliest stained glass windows created in Portugal were those in the aisles of the church of the monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória, commonly known as monastery of Batalha. The artist who made them was Luís Alemão (Louis the German) who presumably emigrated from Franconia to Portugal at the end of the 1430’s. Fragments of his panels remain as the oldest evidence of stained glass in Portugal. Their style presents great affinity with the art of Franconia and Nuremberg in southern Germany, namely the windows in St. Magdalen, Münnerstadt, the church of St. Veit in Iphofen or the churches of St. Lawrence and St. Sebald in Nuremberg. Analytical studies to establish the composition of these coloured glasses indicate that they have identical compositions, suggesting one common production place and the used raw of the same materials. These glasses, with compositions typical of German medieval glass, are the evidence that both artistic and technical concepts circulated with a strong impact on the production of medieval stained glass in Portugal.

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La itinerancia artística en la Crónica Geral de Espanha de 1344 (Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, M. S. A. 1).

María Pandiello Fernández

Univ. Lisboa

En los márgenes de Crónica Geral de Espanha de 1344 (M.S.A 1, Academia das Ciências de Lisboa)1 convergen prácticas artísticas que provienen de talleres localizados en cortes foráneas.
A modo de crisol, este valiosísimo códice aúna, además, la tradición herbaria y alquímica, las primeras experiencias naturalistas, la paginación italiana y aragonesa, el gusto por el detalle arquitectónico, la simulación de tridimensionalidad y una contundente iconografía moralizante.
De la heterogeneidad pictórica del manuscrito lisboeta se intuyen varios artistas con dispares procedencias que imprimieron en el pergamino distintos métodos y tradiciones pictóricas. La presente comunicación pretende exponer este caso de estudio a modo de ilustrar la itinerancia artística en el llamado Gótico Internacional, cuestionando la uniformidad de este término y valorando la importancia de experiencias artísticas locales, así como su difusión. Los puntos a desarrollar serán los siguientes:
1. El libro/manuscrito como espacio de intercambio artístico entre distintos talleres de miniadores. La itinierancia de los artistas y los métodos de trabajo en los talleres de miniadores.
2. La interdisciplinariedad de los artistas y su impacto en la concepción espacial de la página. Arquitectos y escultores abordando el manuscrito: la escuela lombarda y las consecuencias en la miniatura.
3. La apropiación de la materia científica y el desarrollo del proto-naturalismo: la importancia de los herbarios y la materia alquímica para la ornamentación marginal desarrollada en Italia y su impacto en el manuscrito portugués.
4. Conclusiones.
1 Manuscrito portugués de producción áulica y miniado a inicios del siglo XV.

 

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Les artistes au service de la globalisation

L’exemple de la peinture eyckienne dans l’ancienne Couronne d’Aragon

Elsa Espin

Univ. Paris IV-Sorbonne; Univ. Autònoma de Barcelona

Le début du XVème siècle voit apparaître la figure de Jan van Eyck. Bien qu’il n’inventa pas la peinture à l’huile comme l’affirmait Giorgio Vasari, le maître brugeois fut néanmoins à l’origine d’une véritable révolution picturale, qualifiée de « renaissance flamande ». Sa manière de peindre marqua Antonello de Messine en Italie, Konrad Witz en Suisse ou encore Lluis Dalmau dans la péninsule ibérique, elle influença véritablement toute l’Europe comme l’a souligné Till-Holger Borcher dans deux expositions majeures au Groeningemuseum en 2002 et 20101.
La question de la diffusion de l’ars nova a déjà largement été traité, mettant en évidencenqu’il s’agit d’un phénomène global à toute l’Europe, une Europe en mouvement où s’opèrent constamment des échanges entre les différents royaumes. Les artistes et oeuvres, venus du nord, sont connus et documentés, ils n’ont pourtant jusqu’à présent pas fait l’objet d’études poussés.
Dans le cadre de cette présentation je m’intéresserai aux peintres étrangers dans l’ancienne couronne d’Aragon, qui ont permis de véhiculer ces nouveautés artistiques, à leur adaptation et à leur impact sur la production locale. Au travers d’exemples significatifs, comme Lluis Dalmau, peintre qu’Alphonse le Magnanime envoya en Flandre se former à cette nouvelle manière, également Louis Allyncbrood qui s’installa lui définitivement à Valence ou encore Antoine de Lonhy qui travailla quelques années à Barcelone. Je tenterai de démontrer comment ces mouvements d’artistes ont permis une diffusion rapide et efficace du mouvement eyckien.

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Pictured from Afar: Interrogating Giotto’s Global Encounters

Jill Harrison

Open Univ. United Kingdom

The Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone is renowned for his naturalistic depictions of trecento Italian life. What he is not recognised for however is his significant engagement with a much wider world. Giotto’s subjects were not confined to his native country but drawn from all parts of Africa, Arabia, India and the East. This paper interrogates the extent to which a global dimension can be identified in Giotto’s work and more significantly how his visual mediation can be analysed to assess contemporary attitudes to cultural and religious difference.
The trecento was a time of transition and artists played a seminal role in disseminating and testing out new ways of looking and thinking. Giotto’s patrons and advisors were part of a global network who engaged with trade, religion and above all mechanisms of intellectual and economic power. In the Palazzo della Ragione, Padua, for example, his collaboration with the heretical philosopher, scientist and eminent scholar of Arabic learning Pietro d’Abano, produced a visual compendium of international motifs. The architecture of the palazzo itself was influenced by a Pallavan temple on the Bay of Bengal. In Florence Giotto’s frescoes in the Bardi chapel recorded the missionary exploits of the Franciscans in Egypt and Syria, and in the Peruzzi chapel he included images of architecture known to exist in Split and Ephesus.
Taking a multi-disciplinary approach this paper explores the principles and values which underpin Giotto’s images and challenges the perceived limits of their geographic and cultural compass.

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A PROJEÇÃO ORTOGONAL NO DESENHO ARQUITETÓNICO DOS TRATADOS DE ARQUITETURA TARDO-GÓTICOS ALEMÃES DOS SÉCULOS XV E XVI

Francisco Merino Rodríguez

Universitat de Barcelona, ACAF/ART

Durante os séculos XV e XVI, no âmbito arquitetónico germânico, redigiram-se vários tratados de arquitetura: os cadernos de Wolfgang Rixner e do Mestre WG, além do nomeado caderno Dresden; os manuscrito de Hans Hammer e de Lorenz Lecher e os tratados de Matthäus Roritzer –VisierbüchleinBüchlein von der Fialen Gerechtigkeit, Wimpergbüchlein Geometria deutsch– e de Hanns Schmuttermayer –Fialenbüchlein–. Trata-se dum conjunto de obras relativamente homogéneas. Em maior ou menor medida, todos eles recolheram conhecimentos arquitetónicos e construtivos prévios plenamente assentados, fruto da aprendizagem e prática da arquitetura no contexto dos grémios de pedreiros medievais. Do mesmo modo, os autores também adicionaram novas contribuições, algumas delas relacionadas com a representação gráfica da arquitetura. Contudo, apesar deste conjunto de obras ser conhecido pela comunidade científica e ter sido objeto de análise, até agora não foi feito um estudo de conjunto da representação do objeto arquitetónico mediante a projeção ortogonal.
Portanto, o objectivo desta investigação é estudar neste conjunto de obras qual foi a implementação, uso, evolução e desenvolvimento deste sistema de representação gráfica arquitetónica. Desta forma, por um lado, prossegue-se a identificar quais são os invariantes e os pontos em comum entre ambos e tentar inferir até que ponto estas práticas puderam-se relacionar com a aprendizagem e transmissão de conhecimentos técnicos nestes grémios de pedreiros. Enquanto que, por outro lado, tentar-se-á sublinhar quais foram as inovações que desde o ponto de vista gráfico introduziram-se tanto na projeção ortogonal, em geral, como nas diferentes vistas ortogonais –planta e alçado– em particular, do objeto arquitetónico representado. Do mesmo modo,prestar-se-á uma especial atenção às propostas que desde a ortogonalidade tentassem representar o interior espacial e material destes objetos.

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Genova, la Liguria e il Mediterraneo. Nuove proposte e alcune riflessioni sulla circolazione dei modelli pittorici tra il XIV e gli inizi del XV secolo

Federica Volpera

University of Genoa

Tra la seconda metà del XIV e gli inizi del XV secolo, sulla scia di una storia che nasce nella prima metà del Trecento con la presenza di un certo Franciskus de Saliceto a Palermo (1333) e con la realizzazione della Madonna dell’Umiltà di Bartolomeo da Camogli per una chiesa palermitana (1346; ora Palermo, Palazzo Abatellis), certi modelli figurativi elaborati in Liguria raggiunsero la Spagna, la Sardegna e la Sicilia attraverso l’invio di opere pittoriche e la diretta attività di maestranze liguri o educate alle forme di quel composito linguaggio regionale, dando vita a livello locale a diversi fenomeni di ricezione, rielaborazione e ibridazione. Partendo da realtà già note agli studi, come i complessi realizzati da Barnaba da Modena per Murcia, questo contributo si propone di: arricchire il panorama fin qui delineato attraverso l’analisi di episodi inediti (mi riferisco alla Madonna col Bambino del chiostro della Cattedrale di Savona, affiancata dallo stemma di Castiglia e León, e a una tavola conservata nel Museo del tesoro della Cattedrale di Savona, riferibili entrambe all’attività di un pittore anonimo degli inizi del XV secolo, da me ribattezzato Maestro del chiostro, i cui caratteri disegnativi e compositivi si ritrovano nel linguaggio della scuola siracusana gravitante intorno al così detto Maestro di Santa Maria secondo un rapporto di influenze non dissimile da quello che definisce in termini pisani e liguri i modi del Maestro del Polittico di Agira, operante tra la Sicilia, Malta e la Catalogna intorno al secondo decennio del Quattrocento); e riflettere sulle possibili ragioni che determinarono la fortuna della pittura ligure nel Mediterraneo tardo medievale, e quindi il valore sociale, religioso e culturale riconosciuto a determinati modelli compositivi, iconografici e stilistici. 

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UN MUNDO EN TRANSICIÓN: LA SUPERVIVENCIAS DE MODELOS Y REPERTORIOS MEDIEVALES EN LOS CÓDICES ILUMINADOS DEL SIGLO XVI EN CASTILLA

Jaime Moraleda Moraleda

Universidad de Castilla La Mancha

El fin de la Edad Media no supuso un cambio radical en los modelos decorativos en torno al códice iluminado. Por el contrario, los repertorios medievales impuestos a finales del siglo XV se mantuvieron presentes en numerosos ejemplos de manuscritos castellanos, en cuyas orlas y letras capitales seguían floreciendo, con el mismo virtuosismo del esplendor pasado, una amplia variedad de flora y fauna de raíz flamenca.
La potente capacidad de transmisión de modelos que permitió la invención de la imprenta, no sólo modernizó la escena estética a través de repertorios italianizantes. El códice miniado, y en particular los Libros de Horas y su progresivo arraigo en Castilla, permitieron que no se extinguieran en absoluto todos aquellos repertorios que interpretamos más propios del mundo medieval que del moderno.
Fórmulas a la romana, insectos y verduras de textura aún gótica, compartieron durante décadas la superficie de numerosos códices iluminados sin perder por ello el espíritu de transición en el que se gestaban los cambios de aquella Europa de finales del siglo XV y principios del siguiente. 

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Romanesque polychrome wood sculptures in Europe: State of the question and grounds for future endeavors

Lucretia Kargère

Metropolitan Museum of Art

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New research findings on XI-XIIth c. polychrome wood sculpture at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage in Brussels

Dr. Emmanuelle Mercier

Institut royal du patrimoine artistique, Bruxelles, Belgique

Technical study of polychrome wooden sculpture enables researchers to bring to light knowledge and practices, as well as the exchange of carving and painting techniques in the Middle Ages. This paper aims to analyze the last 60years of research in Belgium, including recent case studies, and to compare this information with data found on objects from other European regions. 
This conference is a good opportunity to explore how technical examination can contribute to changing the tenacious vision that the Middle Ages were dull and withdrawn.
The richness of pictorial effects and techniques demonstrates a mastery long considered as typical of the late Gothic. The identification of materials reveals a palette made up of local and artificials pigments as well as pigments imported from distants regions such as South Asia and Badaskan, which testify to the circulation of goods and trade. In the same way, the imitation and use of gold is understandable in the socioeconomic and political context.
The evolution of materials and techniques is not always recorded in medieval treatises, however. In contrast, most of the information collected on Belgian polychrome sculpture matches the results of analyses carried out on sculptures from other European regions, both in terms of the evolution of their appearance and of their techniques. These observations make it possible to put forward the hypothesis of a fast oral transmission not only within local worshops but in the broader European global context. 

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Étude et documentation de trois sculptures en bois polychrome de Bourgogne des XIe et XIIe siècles.

Nadia Bertoni

UMR 6298 ARTEHIS Univ. de Bourgogne – Dijon ; Atelier Restauration Cren

La statue de la Vierge dite Notre Dame de Bon Espoir de Dijon, le Christ en croix de Varenne L’Arconce et la Croix Triomphale de la cathédrale de Nevers ont été examinées au cours de récentes interventions de conservation et restauration.
Dans le contexte roman bourguignon, à l’état actuel des études, ces sculptures sont des œuvres capitales. La Notre Dame de Bon Espoir est la plus ancienne sculpture de Bourgogne et le Christ de Varenne L’Arconce est l’unique sculpture de Christ de la fin du XIe conservée en Bourgogne. La Croix Triomphale de Nevers représente un exemple remarquable de Christ en croix sur crux gemmata du premier style 1200.
Pour les qualités artistiques et historiques propres à ces trois sculptures et par le fait que toutes ont été datées par C14 ou par dendrochronologie, elles constituent désormais des jalons importants dans l’histoire de la sculpture romane sur bois.
Les caractéristiques des polychromies d’origine ont été révélées par l’étude stratigraphique et les analyses micro-stratigraphiques. Les préparations, les pigments et les liants ont été caractérisés après une identification des phases polychromes et une documentation par diagrammes et fiches stratigraphiques. Une forme de documentation plus proche aux méthodes des archéologues est expérimentée.

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Le corpus sans fin des monuments historiques : fédérer, orienter et diffuser les études menées sur les sculptures romanes polychromes d'Auvergne

Marie-Blanche Potte1, Dominique Faunières 1, Agnès Blossier1 and Lucretia Kargère 2

1 - DRAC-Rhone- Alpes France 2 - ICVBC - CNR, Florence

The Corpus of twelfth-century polychrome wood sculptures in the French region of Auvergne is significant, but still poorly identified.  One major issue in studying these sculptures is that they are not well known, not well examined, and for many not well published, especially crucifixes.  With the desire to promote these sculptures to both public and specialists, the French Ministry of Culture has begun the scientific examination of three crucifixes, including the Christ de Saint FlourMontsalvy and Blesle still housed in their original settings.  The study is part of a multi-year project undertaken in conjunction with research performed on Auvergne Romanesque sculptures at The Metropolitan Museum in New York, including groups of the Virgin and Child. This talk will announce principal lines of research beyond technical analysis of wooden support and paint layers, from questions of possible workshop attributions in a given region, to interrogations of the sculptures’ function and worship in their original architectural settings.

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“Nuevas perspectivas sobre formas de control territorial en la Corona de Aragón durante la Baja Edad Media”

Margarita Vázquez Corbal

Univ. de Santiago de Compostela

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“EL DOMINIO DEL AGUA COMO ELEMENTO DE CONTROL TERRITORIAL. Los ríos Huecha, Aguasvivas, Martín, Segura, Jalón, Huerva y Gállego: una perspectiva comparada”.

David Lácamara Aylón 

Universidad. de Zaragoza; UNIZAR

A lo largo de la historia, el control de los recursos ha presentado una gran importancia en el desarrollo de las sociedades humanas. Las características climáticas de la Corona de Aragón hicieron que el foco de atención se centrase especialmente en el agua. Dicho recurso, en su vinculación directa con el riego y la puesta en valor de las tierras del interior de los reinos de la Corona, sería uno de los principales puntos de fricción en numerosas ocasiones y se enmarcaría en el enfrentamiento global entre los señores feudales y las ciudades y el paulatino desplazamiento del poder hacia el ámbito urbano.Durante los siglos bajomedievales aparecen diversos conflictos en la zona del bajo Segura, en el reino de Valencia. No obstante, la aridez del reino de Aragón haría que fuese dicho territorio el que viviese con mayor intensidad estas luchas por el control de las corrientes hídricas.Los principales conflictos se circunscribieron a la zona central del reino, concretamente a los ríos Huecha, Martín, Aguasvivas, Huerva, Jalón y Gállego, y enfrentarían a diversas poblaciones y señores, sobresaliendo el caso de la ciudad de Zaragoza.La capital del reino ejerció un control férreo sobre los recursos que la rodeaban, motivando numerosos conflictos con diferentes vecinosLas relaciones entre los actores intervinientes giraron en torno a dos vertientes: la primera, está constituida por la idea del “bien común”; por el contrario, la motivación subyacente será, en gran parte, la del beneficio particular de los estamentos privilegiados.

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Entredichos, excomuniones y censuras. La religión como instrumento de poder en la frontera sudeste peninsular entre la Corona de Castilla y la Corona de Aragón (ss. XIV y XV)

María José Cañizares Gómez

Universidad de Alicante, UA

Tras la Sentencia de Torrellas (1304) y el Tratado de Elche (1305) se definieron los límites fronterizos en la zona sudeste peninsular entre la Corona de Castilla y la Corona de Aragón dividiendo el primigenio Reino de Murcia en dos: el sur para los castellanos y el norte para los aragoneses. Aunque el norte quedó bajo el poder político de la Corona de Aragón no se hizo lo mismo a nivel espiritual permaneciendo la Gobernación de Orihuela subyugada al control religioso del obispado de Cartagena. Este hecho dio lugar a gran número de conflictos, rivalidades y antagonismos entre ambos territorios adquiriendo este tema una gran relevancia en la vida social y política de ambos lugares, lo que originó por parte de los oriolanos la necesidad de alcanzar una diócesis independiente. En este trabajo nos centramos en una de las formas de control más importantes que se utilizó para ejercer esta soberanía religiosa: los entredichos, las excomuniones y las censuras. El lanzamiento de un entredicho por parte del obispo suponía la censura eclesiástica absoluta de dicha zona impidiéndoles realizar oficios divinos, recibir los sacramentos o poder tener una sepultura cristiana. El objetivo es analizar los efectos de estas censuras sobre la sociedad oriolana, los motivos, tipos y duración de los entredichos a lo largo de los siglos XIV y XV y cómo se llevó a cabo la intervención de la gobernación y de los monarcas aragoneses en la resolución de estos conflictos.

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El control territorial de la payesía. La importancia del dominio útil de la tierra en la Cataluña Vieja

Santiago Zamora Cárcamo

Universidad. de Barcelona,UB

Los estudios clásicos sobre el control territorial se han centrado siempre en el dominio directo de la tierra, en los estamentos superiores que tienen la propiedad y el control de ésta. El análisis de sus estrategias, de las luchas de poder entre ellos y en el abuso que ejercían sobre el campesinado. En la Cataluña Vieja la percepción de rentas provenía básicamente de las tierras cedidas en enfiteusis, centrando mayoritariamente el trabajo de la tierra en pequeñas explotaciones unifamiliares, los mansos. Estas unidades de explotación eran a la par que unidades rentísticas, una forma fácil de controlar el cobrode los censos gracias a que cada familia de campesinos se ocupaba de un terreno compacto y que le permitía la autosuficiencia. La desigual calidad de las tierras, acentuada por el incremento de las tierras cosechadas debido al aumento demográfico, junto con las crisis que provocaron el abandono de buena parte de estas (como la Peste Negra) generó un rico mercado de la tierra entre los siglos XIII y XV. Lasoportunidades de acumulación de tierras, ya fuera de dominios directos como sobre todo de dominios útiles, permitió que se formara una clase de campesinos acomodados con un control de la tierra y que se fueron convirtiendo en magnates locales. Su poder se amplió tanto en la vertiente pública (bailías, notarías...) como en la eclesiástica, y su riqueza se amplió lo suficiente como para poder lograr victorias sobre sus señores como la abolición de los malos usos.

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Global Queenship? Competences and performances of the Queens of Portugal during Middle Ages

Manuela Santos Silva

Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de História da Universidade de Lisboa / Instituto de Estudos Medievais IEM - FCSH NOVA

The notion that queens exercised a specific power diverse from their masculine counterparts has been developed since the last decades of the twentieth century and been used in some very diverse study cases. Theoretically, it can’t be ignored that there is a big difference between queens that exerted the power in their own name, and therefore exercised a very similar kind of power to that of kings. But even in what queens-consort are concerned, regional studies about queenship have revealed considerable differences about what is allowed to a queen, depending on law traditions adopted in each kingdom.
Studies about Iberian queenship in the Middle Ages have revealed some differences between eastern and in the western kingdoms in what some matrimonial practices are concerned as in the exercise of power itself, but on the whole it is being revealed that the capacities that Iberian traditions attributed to their queens-consort are far more wide and varied than those exercised by queens of other well-known western European kingdoms, whose institutional models are often presented as global.
In this paper, we aim to present a spectrum of queenship performances based on Medieval Queens of Portugal that will show their capacity of intervening in their husbands governance and also how they managed to lead a very autonomous leaving inside the royal court.

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Le Moyen Age comme ‘global time’ de la Papauté ? Une analyse autour de l’image papale

Claudia d’Alberto

Marie-Curie COFUND postdoctoral fellow at the University of Liege. Co-funded by the European Union

Nous vivons une situation extraordinaire : deux papes coexistent, l'un émérite, qui abdiqua en 2013 (plus de sept cents ans après la plus célèbre des abdications médiévales, celle de Célestin V en 1294) et l'autre encore charge. Nous venons aussi d’être témoins de la canonisation de deux papes (2014) et de la promulgation de deux jubilés (2000 et 2015).
Cette situation extraordinaire a stimulé la création artistique autour de la figure du pape qui est, sans aucun doute, la personnalité politique et l’autorité religieuse la plus importante que le Moyen Age ait transmis à l’époque contemporaine.
On pense notamment à la série télévisée The Young Pope, écrite et réalisée par Paolo Sorrentino (2016), qui prend acte de l'atténuation de l'identité papale. Le pape y est présenté comme ayant des difficultés à paraître en public et à faire reproduire son image, « parce que son image n’existe pas ».
Le réalisateur italien a été inspiré par un problème de longue date, celui de la représentation du pape qui, surtout à partir d’Innocent III (1198-1216), constitue une question iconographique particulière, en raison d’une complexité sémantique déterminée par des implications ecclésiologiques (BELTING 2009, PARAVICINI BAGLIANI 2013, OLARIOU 2014).
Depuis les images canoniques sur les absides des basiliques romaines jusqu’aux portraits modernes en passant par le buste de Boniface VIII, les effigies des papes français d’Avignon et les Vaticinia Pontificum, on s’interrogera sur la tradition médiévale qui se cache derrière la politique par images des papes réels et imaginaires des époques moderne et contemporaine.

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Marco Paulo e companhia

Helena Garvão

Univ. Lisboa

The compilation Marco Paulo, printed by Valentim Fernandes in 1502, brings together three texts which constitute testimonies of medieval travelers in the East Indies: the book of Marco Polo (original version of ca. 1298); the book of Nicholas Veneto whose testimony Poggio Bracciolini reports in the book IV of his work De varietate fortunae (ca. 1445), ending with the Jeronimo de Santo Stefano’s letter (1492), another Italian merchant.

I'll discuss the first two texts referred to, looking for the reason why Valentine Fernandes decided to include in the same work these two testimonies which are chronologically distant nearly  two centuries.
Keywords:  Polo, Marco (1254-1323?); Fernandes,Valentim (1450-1519); Portuguese Travel Literature – XVIth century;  Press – Portugal – XVth-XVIth centuries; Travel – XIIIth century

Referências Bibliográficas / Bibliographic references
ALBUQUERQUE, Luís de (2001), Introdução à História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Mem-Martins: Publicações Europa-América.
BARBIERI, Álvaro e ANDREOSE, Alvise (1999) Marco Polo Il «Milione» veneto – ms. CM 211 della Biblioteca Cívica di Padova, Venezia: Marsilio.
BENEDETTO, Luigi Foscolo (1928) Marco Polo – Il Milione – Prima edizione integrale, Firenze.
DIAS, João José Alves (1995), No Quinto Centenário da Vita Christi – Os primeiros impressores alemães em Portugal, Lisboa: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro.
FAVIER, Jean (1980) De Marco Polo a Cristovão Colombo. 1250 – 1492, Lisboa: Publicações D. Quixote.
FEBVRE, Lucien e MARTIN, Henri-Jean (2000) O aparecimento do livro, Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.
FERREIRA, Vergílio (1972), «Da verosimilhança», Colóquio / Letras, nº 8, Julho/72, Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.
GUÉRET-LAFERTÉ, Michèle (2004), Poggio Bracciolini – DE L’INDE – Les voyages en Asie de Niccolò de’ Conti (Texte établi, traduit et commenté), Turnhout, Belgium : Brepols.
HORTA, José da Silva (2004) “O Marco Paulo (1502) de Valentim Fernandes: a representação dos povos não-cristãos na construção de uma imagem do poder real manuelino”, HOMO VIATOR, Estudos em homenagem a Fernando Cristóvão, Lisboa: Edições Colibri (pp. 109-134).
LE GOFF, Jacques (1990), O maravilhoso e o quotidiano no Ocidente medieval, Lisboa: Edições 70.
PEREIRA, F.M. Esteves (1922) Marco Paulo: o Livro de Marco Paulo – o Livro de Nicolao Veneto – Carta de Jeronimo de Santo Estevam, Lisboa: Ofic. Gráf. da Biblioteca Nacional.
ZUMTHOR, Paul (1993) La Mesure du Monde, Paris: Seuil.
Referência electrónica
MARILDA LOPES GINEZ DE LARA, “O Unicórnio (o Rinoceronte, o Ornitorrinco...), a Análise Documentária e a Linguagem Documentária”: http://www.dgz.org.br/dez01/Art_03.htm

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Romanesque polychrome wood sculptures in Europe: State of the question and grounds for future endeavors II

Emmanuelle Mercier

IRPA-KIK (Belgium) 

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Wooden Sculpture in Romanesque Spain. A wide and suggestive panorama. Lines of research

Jordi Camps

MNAC Barcelona 

Romanesque polychrome wooden imagery in the Iberian Peninsula (12th-13th centuries) stands both as a valuable and complex heritage. There is a wide variety of styles and typology across the territory in the different kingdoms or counties, where some variants are circumscribed to some small geographical areas –such as bishoprics or even small valleys. Apart from some general lines that determine compositional and symbolic features, the local context, the liturgy, the artists or workshops and the influence of some prestigious models have created a highly attractive scenario.
Despite traditionally not being considered a main research field, coming behind architectural sculpture, painting or even metalwork, these last two decades Romanesque wooden sculpture has inspired many scholarly studies primarily based on liturgy, typology and style aspects. At the same time, the number of studies on technical and material aspects involving interdisciplinary work has increased. Nonetheless, its study is methodologically challenging for it is difficult to classify the works given the large number of elements to consider and the fact the origin of the carvings is quite often unknown, therefore having to rely on the comparison with other regional and interregional art forms.
One of the questions that concern scholars the most is the spread of typology and stylistic trends. The influence of metal and precious metal works on tempered polychrome examples (Virgen de la Vega, Salamanca; Virgen de Irache, Navarra; Virgin of Girona Cathedral, Catalonia) must be assessed. Also, a new research field has emerged comparing stone carved works and the especially numerous wood carved works (a good example of which can be found in Solsona, Catalonia). In some other cases, the features of the works might evoke the same spirit, although this doesn’t necessarily entail a direct relationship among works or with its workshop, as we believe happens in the Christ of San Pedro de Siresa (Aragón) and the Catalan Pyrenees.  Other times, the spread of modalities confined to an area might well obey cult and pilgrimage reasons, such as in the Catalan Majesties with the Volto Santo in Lucca. Not all works, however, strictly follow one modality or another (Calvari works; Santa Clara de Astudillo Crucifix, Palencia). Another hypothesis deals with the importation of some objects (Vierge de Thuir, Virgin of Ger).
Another focal point is determined by the long history of the statues, which have experimented numerous transformations throughout time and, generally, are now far from its original architectural and liturgical contexts: they show elements that have been modified, clothes that have been incorporated or polychromies that have been redone. For all of this, beyond its iconographic study, technical study of the works is becoming increasingly important and is shedding significant light on topics (Batlló Majesty, Catalonia). This is particularly useful not only to learn about the objects but also to preserve the works, which is essential because these are often works preserved and in museums, catalogued and that are part of our historic and artistic heritage.
Moreover, polychrome wood was also used in liturgical furniture, especially that surrounding the altar: from altar tables to small altarpieces. It is important to note that some statues that are preserved separately today may well be, from a broader perspective, part of these ensembles, such as some examples preserved in Catalonia. Hence another valuable clue to understand such large-scale production: what it was used for and how it was arranged in the building. That is, its role in the liturgical and cultural framework of the church and of the altar

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Romanesque polychrome wood sculptures in Italy: a comparative analysis of the data from art historical and technical studies.

Grazia Maria Fachechi1 , Susanna Bracci2

1University of Urbino, 2Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage, ICVBC-CNR, Florence

The starting point of our paper is our interdisciplinary study of the largest collection of wooden sculptures in Italy, preserved in the National Museum of Palazzo Venezia in Rome. This study was part of a research project supervised by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, and financed by The Getty Foundation. It was an opportunity to focus on the use of polychromy in Medieval and Renaissance wooden sculpture in Europe. Among all the sculptures in Palazzo Venezia, is the so-called “Madonna di Acuto”, one of the best preserved Romanesque wooden sculptures in Italy. The paper will focus on this extraordinary work of art and on other major Italian Romanesque wood polychrome sculptures, examined from the technical point of view, but also those sculptures which don’t seem to have received much attention. It will be an opportunity to measure the state of the question regarding Italian Romanesque wooden sculptures in general terms, and see how deep is scholarly interest in technical aspects, compared to a more traditional approach, focusing on iconographic-iconological and stylistic issues. It will be the occasion also to see, and give as a point of discussion, how the research on Romanesque polychrome wooden sculpture has been disseminated to the public and if the virtual reconstruction of lost polychromy is a good method to make students and visitors of museums understand the original appearance of works of art changed over time.

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Mechanisms of sacred communication: Twelve century polychrome at the northernmost edge of Europe

Kaja Kollandsrud

Museum of Cultural Heritage (MCH) University of Oslo

In Norway, a varied group of medieval wooden sculptures remain from the twelfth century, many with original polychrome preserved. An overview of the artefacts, the painter’s palette, trends in materials used in their construction and the resulting painterly effects will be presented.
Recent research has concluded that these polychrome objects can be read through a visual vocabulary that is part of an intentional and deliberate strategy to evoke divine splendour in the mind of the beholder. The holy is communicated by powerful visual associations with metaphysical divine light and the context of matter in the medieval cosmos. The mental imagery created in contemporary texts is reflected in the visual language communicated by the polychrome sculpture, where the interaction of light with the materials, the representation of light and other associative powers are essential factors.
It is clear from the evidence examined that both the making and the perception of church art in catholic medieval Norway was firmly rooted in an established culture based on the tradition of the old church fathers, in line with Christian paradigms found in the rest of medieval Europe. These results are therefore relevant to the wider European context.

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Territorio, arte y poder a ambos lados del Miño: Galicia y Portugal en la época medieval

Elena Caetano Álvarez

University of Birmingham

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Un nuevo poder para una nueva realidad. En torno a los orígenes del concejo de Monforte de Lemos

Luis Manuel Ibáñez Beltrán

Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, USC

La Tierra de Lemos, amplio valle del sur de la actual provincia de Lugo, es una realidad de larga duración forjada en la estabilidad y el cambio constantes, desde la más pretérita mención a sus más ancianos pobladores en la pluma de Plinio y hasta los tiempos contemporáneos. En el hilo de su desarrollo histórico, en el mismo corazón de la Europa plenomedieval, se remarca un nudo trascendente, la fundación del burgo de Pino, después villa de Monforte, su capital. El nacimiento de este nuevo enclave, en el 1104, pondrá de acuerdo a los dos poderes a la sazón ya instalados en Lemos: el laico del tenente/conde y el eclesiástico del cenobio benedictino de San Vicente del Pino. Ambos acunarán una realidad diferente en lo social, económico, morfológico... y, a la postre, político. Se completará así el panorama de los poderes locales con un tercer elemento: el concejo monfortino. El propósito de esta comunicación es analizar y situar la génesis de este nuevo poder comarcal, así como contextualizarlo en el ámbito gallego y europeo, y acompañarlo en sus primeros pasos, en sus primeras pugnas, por el control territorial del ya viejo Lemos.

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La organización territorial de la Orden del Temple en Galicia: encomiendas, contactos y jerarquías

Almudena Bouzón Custodio

Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, USC

El principal propósito de esta comunicación es analizar la red de encomiendas del Temple en Galicia durante los siglos XII y XIII. La presencia de esta orden militar en esta zona del noroeste peninsular no está bien documentada hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XII, gracias al estudio de las escasas fuentes conservadas sabemos que las propiedades del Temple en esta región irían aumentado debido a las donaciones, compras, ventas e intercambios de bienes. Todo ello llevaría a la formación de las Bailías de Faro y Coia, y de las encomiendas de Lendo, Betanzos, San Sadurniño, San Fiz do Hermo, Canaval, Neira y Amoeiro, las cuales estarían repartidas por toda la geografía gallega. Estas unidades administrativas no eran de índole militar, pues su finalidad era productiva, por lo que su patrimonio va a estar conformado fundamentalmente por diezmos, iglesias y pequeñas propiedades de tierra. Además, varios aspectos nos apuntan a la posibilidad de que la Bailía de Faro, localizada en la Ría do Burgo en la provincia de A Coruña, realizase actividades económico-comerciales con el Norte de Europa. Por otro lado, se analizará la relación que pudo haber entre estas unidades administrativas templarias, y también si existió una jerarquización entre ellas. Finalmente, cabe destacar que dicha red no fue inmutable, ejemplo de ello es que durante el proceso contra la Orden del Temple en la Corona de Castilla-León las encomiendas de Lendo y Betanzos no son mencionadas.

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Arte románico y poder en la frontera entre Galicia y Portugal: el caso de la antigua diócesis de Tui

Margarita Vázquez Corbal

Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, USC

La antigua diócesis de Tui, es un territorio transfronterizo, que hasta el siglo XV (1444) ocupaba parte del sudoeste del territorio gallego y la región portuguesa de Entre Minhoe- Lima. Este territorio es un ejemplo notable de las luchas entre el poder religioso, nobiliario y real por el control y el asentamiento en el territorio transfronterizo. El arte románico se convierte aquí en un elemento capital en la lucha por el poder a través de la fundación, construcción y enriquecimiento de diversos lugares para el culto como la propia sede catedralicia, las iglesias parroquiales, las capillas y los conjuntos monásticos. El análisis de características formales e iconográficas presentes en las construcciones nos permite delimitar áreas de influencia gallega, portuguesa o combinaciones que a su vez nos llevan a relacionar estilos y modelos con elementos de raíz histórica que nos ayudan a comprender como el poder estaba siendo ejercido y a través de quien y como el arte responde al conflicto fronterizo, por ejemplo, en cuanto a los ritmos constructivos en la sede catedralicia, la expansión del románico en la diócesis y el rol de los talleres itinerantes.

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A motionless periphery? Reassessing the evidence for navigation, trade and exchange along the shores of northwestern Iberia in the early Middle Ages

André Evangelista Marques

FCT Postdoctoral Fellow,Institute of Medieval Studies - FCSH NOVA

The Atlantic shores of northern Iberia are generally described as a static periphery during the early Middle Ages, in a marked contrast with the shores of al-Andalus, where urbanization, trade and a general pattern of connectedness with the wider world never really ceased after the Arab conquest (711). However, an ever-growing body of work on pottery, urban and maritime archaeology has shown not only the development of several seaports (Porto, Vigo, A Coruña, Gijón, etc.), but also their integration within the Atlantic long-distance trade routes during Roman times and late antiquity. A whole new understanding of this area, as an integrated periphery, has come to light. And no less relevant, we now have a reliable scenario against which the scanty early medieval evidence can be measured to some extent.
This is no easy task, as the evidence is still too meagre to support a consistent alternative to the traditional view. The charter material is largely silent about coastal areas, narrative sources hardly mention the sea, and archaeological evidence of trade seems to come to a sudden halt after the seventh century. Yet, the fact that maritime activities are by and large absent from the written and material records before the twelfth century does not mean that they were abandoned altogether. In this paper, I shall try to review the scanty evidence available, while arguing that taking both textual and material evidence at face value is part of the reason why Iberia is still largely absent from the wider debate on sea travel and trade in the early Middle Ages.

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Los territorios de la antigua Gallaecia: paralelos en la organización territorial de la franja cantábrica de Lugo y el territorio Entre-Minho-e-Douro durante la Alta y Plena Edad Media

Mariña Bermúdez Beloso

Univ. de Santiago de Compostela (USC) and Centro Ramón Piñeiro para a Investigación en Humanidades (CRPIH)

La trayectoria política conjunta de la antigua Gallaecia romana durante los inicios del período medieval dejó una huella palpable en el territorio y su organización. La importancia de la geografía física en la organización de las entidades tanto políticas como de poblamiento, y con papel destacado de las corrientes fluviales, es común tanto al norte como al sur del río Miño. La distinta trayectoria política que siguen los espacios divididos por dicho río a partir de principios del siglo XII con la reina Teresa y el rey Alfonso I no supone un cambio radical en las formas de estructuración del espacio. Esta trayectoria conjunta que permiten rastrear las fuentes muestra los distintos ritmos de la organización del espacio, y cómo esta se presenta como más estable frente a los cambios políticos, que se suceden con mayor frecuencia. A través de dos espacios concretos, el Entre-Douro-e-Minho y la franja cantábrica de la actual provincia de Lugo, se pretende mostrar estas coincidencias en territorios que desde el siglo XII pertenecerán a reinos diferentes, pero que comparten una trayectoria pasada común que se prolongó durante siglos. La documentación que se conserva para ambas áreas (como el Censual entre Lima e Ave editado por A. de J. da Costa o la composición entre el obispo de Mondoñedo y el conde Rodrigo Vélaz de 1128 ratificada por Alfonso VII) permite la elaboración de cartografías que facilitan la comparativa y ayudan a un análisis más completo.

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“mando fazer sobre el cuerpo de san Yague una  capiella de muy fermosa obra” Paisaje monumental y memoria en el NW hispano a finales del siglo XI

Javier Castiñeiras López (USC)

En los postreros años del siglo XI en el noroeste peninsular se llevaron a cabo una serie de campañas artísticas que significaron la modificación radical del paisaje monumental de esta región de la cristiandad. La elevación de nuevas fábricas catedralicias como las de Santiago, Braga o Mondoñedo, supuso además la aparición en los territorios occidentales del nuevo e internacional lenguaje edilicio románico.
En paralelo a esta revolución estética, acontecieron una seria de procesos político-religiosos que, en cierta medida, auspiciaron dichas campañas artísticas. Los movimientos y traslados de las diócesis, las injerencias regias o el cambio litúrgico, dibujaron un nuevo tablero de poderes que propició que las diferentes sedes asumiesen discursos políticos y estéticos que salvaguardasen sus diversas pretensiones.
Tradicionalmente se ha puesto el foco historiográfico en como en este marco contextual, los poderes hispanos se abrieron y miraron directamente a los principales focos políticos y artísticos de Europa. Arte de peregrinación, arte gregoriano, arte lombardo, etc son solo algunas de las denominaciones europeizantes y globalizadoras, con las que se han definido este proceso. Sin duda, en aras de legitimar los diversos intereses creados, la búsqueda de referentes culturales externos fue una constante, pero junto a ellos la rica y longeva tradición cultural hispana también fue mantenida y reivindicada.
Con nuestra comunicación buscamos desentrañar síntomas de esta memoria edilicia hispana  y de las fermosas obras del pasado que junto a los vientos de cambio continentales, dibujan un relato cultural de contrastes que modificó el paisaje constructivo del noroeste hispano.

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ROUND TABLE

Romanesque polychrome wood sculptures in Europe: State of the question and grounds for future endeavors III

Lucretia Kargère1, Jordi Camps2, Emmanuelle Mercier3

Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) 1, MNAC Barcelona2; IRPA-KIK (Belgium) 3

The technical study of polychrome wood sculptures has developed exponentially in the last thirty years, revolutionizing our knowledge of the techniques employed in medieval times.  Our understanding of Romanesque polychrome wood sculptures is still partial, but a clear impetus is rising in a number of European countries to examine these objects, despite their age and condition.  In the past, art historians tried to discover artistic interrelations between various countries and region with a car and camera in hand.  Today, technological and scientific advances provide radical energy to cultural projects across Europe. 
The organization of three sessions at the 4th international Lisbon conference “Medieval Europe in Motion, The Middle Ages: A Global Context” is an extraordinary opportunity to gather specialists from many countries in Europe to discuss the state of the question regarding these sculptures.  Papers will invite participation of conservators, scientists and art historians, focusing mainly on materials and techniques, but also describing the logistics of studying these objects in respective European countries, and advances in examination and documentation.  The last session will be a round table designed to list future directions for study, crystalize cooperation between countries, and propose methods for possible dissemination of information and publications.

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Desenfoques culturales: roles e iconos femeninos en la cronística, la tradición y la historiografía

Almudena Bouzón Custodio

Univ. de Santiago de Compostela

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El espejo escondido. Política, devoción y reginalidad en tiempos de Elvira la Monja y Sancha I

Diego Asensio García

Universidad de León, ULE

A raíz del análisis interdisciplinar que requieren tanto los reyes leoneses como sus pocas efigies conservadas en los cartularios medievales, encontramos realidades que se deben poner en diálogo con lo hasta ahora aceptado desde la creación decimonónica del concepto de Edad Media. Detrás de padres, hermanos, maridos o sobrinos encontramos los nombres de mujeres sin rostro que escribieron la historia con báculos y coronas. Elvira la Monja y Sancha I son dos de las figuras menos valoradas de la historiografía leonesa. Su preponderancia en la Casa de León dio como resultado algunas de las grandes revoluciones transfronterizas, políticas, artísticas, diplomáticas y devocionales de la historia del reino, siempre enmarcadas en un inigualable contexto de poder femenino: el Infantado. La relación especular que une a estas dos mujeres, estandartes de su linaje, traza un hilo de Ariadna que conecta en clave de mujer un legado recibido con otro transmitido, siempre preservado y engrandecido desde el “anonimato”, mejor llamado olvido actual.

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La feminidad reinante y las tres tentaciones: Cleopatra en la historiografía alfonsí

Elena Caetano Álvarez

Universidad de Huelva, UHU

Los estudios sobre las representaciones discursivas de la feminidad en la literatura, en este caso medieval, han ido en aumento a lo largo de los últimos años produciendo algunos resultados de lo más estimulantes. Siendo así, dentro de nuestro proyecto de tesis doctoral, que versa sobre el empleo propagandístico de las representaciones de gobernantes vinculados al Imperio Romano en la historiografía alfonsí como legitimación del Fecho del Imperio, no podíamos dejar de analizar las figuras de la feminidad reinante relacionadas con el mundo clásico, entre las que traemos para este encuentro la de Cleopatra, ligada al destino de los primeros emperadores como personaje tentador relacionado con la lujuria. El relato de la vida de Cleopatra, ligado a los destinos de Julio César y Marco Antonio es recibido por el scriptorium alfonsí de una manera muy particular, abandonando la sucesión cronológica de los acontecimientos característica de la exhaustividad alfonsí para representar a una reina cuyo suicidio, a diferencia por ejemplo del de Dido, está envuelto en un aire pecaminoso y lujurioso donde la figura de la serpiente tiene un lugar preminente. Intentaremos analizar también cómo, dentro del programa ideológico y político alfonsí, Cleopatra interpreta un papel importante como obstáculo para la transmisión del imperium, vencido por la figura de Octaviano Augusto, cuya piedad y virtud es comparada en más de una ocasión con la de Alfonso X, cerrando así uno de los mecanismos de legitimación imperial del rey Sabio.

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La larga danza de Salomé: desarrollo de un modelo iconográfico en dos tiempos

Amalia Pérez Valiño

Univ. de Santiago de Compostela

La creación y evolución de un modelo iconográfico es un proceso lento y variable que se adapta al tiempo y al espacio en el cual se desarrolla, junto con otros muchos factores que repercuten en la construcción de una imagen. En concreto, nos ocuparemos de la figura de Salomé desde su primera representación en el Codex Sinopensis con la cabeza de San Juan Bautista, hasta su exhibición de piruetas en la danza que dedica a Herodes. Por otro lado, nos gustaría reflexionar sobre el cambio en el significado de la imagen de Salomé a lo largo del tiempo. Su representación, siempre dentro de un marco de “mala mujer”, llega a su punto álgido en el siglo XIX, cuando se convierte en la personificación de una de las femme fatale con mayor influencia decimonónica. La relación directa entre la Edad Media y el siglo XIX es esencial para comprender el medievo que llegó a nosotros, pero no deja de llamar la atención los sutiles cambios en la interpretación de modelos como es el caso de La Hija de Herodías.

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EICAM project- archaeology and interdisciplinary research at Viseu and its territory between the 4th and 12th centuries.

Catarina Tente

IEM- NOVA FCSH

EICAM is a research project (2012-2016) focused on Early Medieval Christian Communities (4thto 12th centuries): in the territory of Viseu (Centre of Portugal). This project was funded by Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and supported by several other institutions as Arqueohoje, the Diocese of Viseu and the municipalities of Sátão and Celorico da Beira.​ The main purpose of the project is to study the relationship between an urban centre and its surrounding areas during the High Middle Ages. This paper will present the main conclusions achieved by the project, including the analysis of the results from archaeological excavations of S. Miguel (Viseu), Senhora do Barrocal (Sátão) and São Gens (Celorico da Beira), as well an interpretation on the rock-cut graves data available.

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PRAM CV project - The Early Medieval rural settlements in Castelo de Vide territory

Sara Prata, Fabián Cuesta-Gómez 

IEM- NOVA FCSH

PRAMCV is an archaeological research project focused on early medieval peasant communities in the territory of Castelo de Vide (Alentejo, Portugal). Using a work methodology that combines surface field survey, GIS, excavation and material culture analysis we have been able to identify and analyse a complex network of early medieval rural settlements. This regional analysis shows evidence of a process of readaptation throughout the post-roman centuries (c. 500 – 800 A.D.) were a new form of countryside is shaped through a network of intricate small and medium farmsteads.
In this paper we will present the works carried out within the framework of the PRAMCV project, focusing on its methodological approach and preliminary findings.

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The EGAEDIS project - The study of Idanha-a-Velha between the 5th and 12th centuries

Tomás Cordero Ruiz

IEM- NOVA FCSH

O projeto IGAEDIS - Da Civitas Igaeditanorum à Egitânia. A construção e evolução da cidade e a definição dos seus territórios da época romana até à doação dos Templários (séculos I a.C. a XII d.C.) pretende estudar de forma integrada a cidade e o seu território na longa duração. Só este tipo de abordagem permitirá compreender as singularidades do sítio e do seu território. Um sem o outro não se podem entender, a cidade reflete o seu território e este organiza-se em função de uma maior ou menor capacidade da cidade atuar sobre ele. A Idanha durante a Antiguidade e a Alta Idade Média assumiu um protagonismo que não pode ser explicado pelo seu posicionamento geográfico nem pelas aptidões agrícolas dos seus territórios. Porém a Idanha possui recursos minerais muito cobiçados e que devem ter sido também a chave para a sua relevância sociopolítica.

Após a época romana, e durante o período das monarquias suevas e visigoda, o território aparentemente estendeu-se e absorveu territórios vizinhos, assumindo uma dinâmica e um destaque político relevante, sem que, contudo, o controle do espaço fosse feito pelos senhores ligados às monarquias. Ainda nesta fase a ligação a Mérida terá sido fundamental no cenário sociopolítico de então. Sinal disso mesmo é o facto de apenas duas igrejas serem mencionadas no Paroquial Suevo, (século VI). A Egitânia estava longe de Braga e de Toledo e essa distância bem como a incapacidade de controlar efetivamente todos os territórios forjou muitos poderes locais que vão ter espaço para controlarem meios produtivos e recursos que antes eram controlados pelo Estado Romano. Para o período islâmico quase nada se sabe, algumas fontes escritas islâmicas referem este território, mas não é evidente o controle efetivo do mesmo por parte das elites islâmicas, e não se conhecem quais as consequências ao nível do povoamento nem das alterações que suscitaram no traçado da cidade. Uma nova função e uma diferente articulação do território virá a ser assumida durante o período da conquista e da formação do reino e importa assim perceber qual o papel que os Templários tiveram e como se relacionaram com os poderes locais instituídos. Para tal, será essencial a articulação da investigação documental com os dados da arqueologia, tarefa para a qual esta equipa experiente está particularmente vocacionada.
Em suma, pretende-se compreender como o território de Idanha na longa diacronia foi articulado, como evoluiu e como se desestruturou, nomeadamente após 711. Produzir conhecimento e divulga-lo socialmente, são também ideias-chave que se articulam

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Conservation-Restoration and Art History: decision making and preservation methodologies for cultural heritage. Conservation and restoration of medieval manuscripts: an interdisciplinary approach.

Conceição Casanova

National Museum of Natural History and Science, Univ. Lisboa; Department of Conservation and Restoration, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa).

In Portugal, illuminated manuscripts studies have gained momentum in recent years, by trying to understand the circulation of models, practices and knowledge and how the local identity has received, adapted, absorbed and transformed the global identity. It is imperative to understand the specific context of Portugal regarding the production of manuscripts: a strong monastic production contrasts with the absence of ateliers of lay artists in the fifteenth century. The art historian is thus confronted with a multitude of factors that prove essential in this new research methodology, where material studies combined with the analysis of textual and iconographic content allowing us to building up part of the history of this object, but also tracing its evolution and defining its local impact (or lack thereof). In front of such new challenges, the art historian teams up with experts from different areas of knowledge: the interdisciplinary work becomes determinant for the knowledge of the manuscript as a whole. In this session, only one of these areas of new research conducted at the IEM will be addressed, reflecting the concern to preserve the heritage for future generations: the conservation and restoration of a medieval manuscript. For the decision-making process during the conservation-restoration, full awareness and an in-depth knowledge of the object is essential: what should be done when part of the text and/or illumination is missing? How to proceed when the set integrity is put in danger? In such cases, it is the art historian's responsibility to provide detailed information, enabling the conservation and restoration team to take decisions in the face of multiple factors.

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The conservation of two books of Hours belonging to the Library of Mafra National Palace (“Cofre nº 24” and “Cofre nº 31”)

Ana Lemos1, Rita Araújo1 2 3 ‘

1 IEM-FCSH NOVA, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2 Department of Conservation and Restoration, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 3 LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa,

This paper aims to address the decision-making process and the methodology adopted in the intervention and investigation of two case studies, considering the role of the art historian in the manuscripts identification and the identity aspects of its circulation.

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A Book of Hours of the use of Rouen preserved in the Braga District Archive: an identity retrieval

Ana Lemos1, Diana Pires2

1 IEM-NOVA FSCH , 2 DGLAB ANTT/ADB

This presentation aims to address aspects concerning the role of the art historian in the restoration process of a book of hours and the role of the conservator-restorer in its identity retrieval.

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From inaccessibility to material access of an Illuminated Codex - a Diurnal according to the Braga Rite preserved in the District Archive of Braga

Catarina Barreira1 2, Liliana Silva3

1 IEM-NOVA FCSH, 2 CEHR-UCP,, 3 DGLAB ANTT/ADB 

This paper focuses on the importance of the contributions of Art History and Liturgy for the confirmation of the unity and codicological integrity of this particular manuscript and the role played by Conservation & Restoration in recovering its physical and mechanical integrity of the manuscript, in order to ensure its future stability.

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D’aquém e d’além mar: Territory and “Expansion” in Portugal’s Long Twelfth Century

Tiago Viúla Faria

IEM-FCSH NOVA

It seems incontrovertible that the main thrust for Portugal’s formation and development between the twelfth and the thirteenth centuries came mainly from territorial acquisition through armed intervention — and not as strongly from backstage politics, such as with a deliberate/sustained dynastic policy. Most important of all, unlike almost any polity in medieval Europe, land and sovereignty were reclaimed by the Portuguese as the spoils of victory over non‒Christians. As such, both the rhetoric and the modus vivendi of society and institutions across the spectrum remained heavily underpinned by a foundation of crusade. In this paper, these ideas will be seen against the beginnings of Portuguese expansion, in the much later backdrop of the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. It will be emphasised that in this later period, rather than fundamentally different, the motivations behind territorial enlargement owed a great deal to received rhetoric.

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Historiografía, autoría y escatología en el  “Libro del conocimiento del fin del mundo”

Israel Sanmartín

Universidad de Santiago

El “Libro del conocimiento del fin del mundo” es un libro del siglo XV castellano. En él se narran toda una serie de pruebas que muestran cómo es posible conocer el fin del mundo en esa época. El libro ofrece nueve capítulos en los que narra la posibilidad de reconocer las señales de los últimos tiempos. Nos proponemos en este artículo reflexionar sobre el “fin del mundo” como posibilidad catastrófica desde un punto de vista material (el fin del mundo físico) y el fin del  mundo espiritual (vinculado al Juicio Final).  Además de esto, abordaremos la cuestión de la autoría del texto (atribuida a Juan de Rocatallada), los elementos escatológicos del textos, su concepción historiográfica. El objetivo final será insertar este escrito en la tradición castellana de anuncios finalistas bajomedievales. 

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Intercultural Transfers and Generic Transformation: Mapping Out Paris and Vienna

Ana Pairet

Rutgers University

The centrality of romance in early print culture is still not fully acknowledged by contemporary scholars, particularly in the case of narratives featuring non-Arthurian materials such as the loosely categorized “adventure” and “idyllic” romances. Comparative multilingual perspectives such as the ones pioneered byCaroline Jewers and Catherine Léglu bring to light missing links in the broad history of literary interactions. This intercultural approach finds a powerful ally in material history. If we consider books as contingent commodities, a dynamic picture emerges, one in which medieval narratives kept their appeal well into sixteenth century, and were repurposed and heavily edited to fit evolving notions of genre, largely driven by the contingences of the marketplace. During the first five decades of print (1473-1526), prose romance evolved into a flourishing editorial genre, and translations were key to this nascent industry. A survey of vernacular materials printed before 1500 reveals a growing demand for narratives that codified and exemplified chivalry. This paper will follow the textual and paratextual trajectory of the early European best-seller Paris and Vienne, a prose romance composed ca. 1440 by Pierre de la Cepède. In particular, I will highlight its transformations from the Italian and French editio princeps (ca. 1480) to Caxton’s English translation (1485). This case study will enable us to reconsider the influence of medieval romance, via the sentimental novel, on modern narrative forms.

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Fibonacci's Liber Abaci and the globalisation of mathematics.

Astrid Khoo

King's College London

This paper explores the origins of the mathematical concepts in the Liber Abaci, published in 1202 by the famed Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci). It will answer thequestion: To what extent did Fibonacci introduce Eastern knowledge into Western scientific thought? Especial attention will be paid to Fibonacci’s introduction of the ‘novem figurae indorum’, also known as the ‘Hindu-Arabic numeral system’. This paper will also explore Fibonacci’s use of the famed Chinese Remainder Theorem, while determining whether Fibonacci consciously borrowed this concept from third-century Chinese sources. In exploring these subjects, this paper will not only rely on Fibonacci’s base text, but also on Latin manuscripts from the thirteenth century. By analysing palaeographical developments like the introduction of ‘Arabic numerals’, this paper will demonstrate that Fibonacci did, to a great extent, introduce Eastern knowledge to Western Europe. It will therefore challenge the stereotype of an insular medieval Europe, instead emphasising the permeability of knowledge between East and West. Finally, this paper provides an opportunity to discuss the broader concept of a ‘scientificglobalisation’ that has lasted from the First Crusade up to the present day.

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O horizonte vegetal último da farmácia de D. Duarte. Plantas importadas presentes no receituário do Rei Eloquente

António Rei, Ph.D.

IEM - FCSH  NOVA – UNL, EEA – CSIC (Granada)FCT / POCH Scholarship

O apartado médico do “Livro dos Conselhos do Rei D. Duarte” recolhe um significativo conjunto de receitas farmacêuticas.
Na diversidade de substâncias, simples e compostas, que compõem aquele conjunto de receitas, algumas conseguem-se identificar de imediato, porque o termo se manteve igual ou parecido ao atual, mas outras há que nos colocam logo problemas de compreensão. Há termos tão incomuns que num primeiro momento não existe certeza sobre se se trata de uma substância de origem vegetal, animal ou mesmo mineral.
A palavra ou expressão que a identifica já não é imediatamente compreensível no português atual. Porque se alterou a designação no idioma, ou por que se tratava de um termo estrangeiro aportuguesado, neste caso, geralmente, identificando, muito em especial, importações que chegavam a Portugal, vindas na sua grande maioria, por via mediterrânica.
As primeiras especiarias e substâncias orientais com uso farmacêutico terão chegado à região hoje Portugal, por intermédio dos fenícios, e, mais tarde, dos cartagineses.
E da mesma forma algumas daquelas mesmas substâncias seriam suficientemente conhecidas e utilizadas entre os médicos do período romano, já que o domínio romano abarcava toda a bacia mediterrânica. Apesar de no período germânico se ter dado algum enfraquecimento nos contactos comerciais e científicos, da Península Ibérica com o Oriente Medio, a expansão árabo-islâmica que voltou a colocar a Península hispânica como parte integrante das grandes rotas comerciais e científicas daquela época, e que a ligavam com o Médio e mesmo com o Extremo Oriente.
Como consequência de todo aquele tráfego comercial, científico e humano, foram-se vulgarizando na Península subs­tâncias curativas vegetais, animais e minerais, cujo conhecimento perdurou definitivamente, tendo as mesmas sido usadas por médicos muçulmanos, mas também por médicos cristãos e judeus.
É sobre as importações de substâncias vegetais que queremos fazer este estudo de identificação dos termos, das respetivas regiões de origem das mesmas, e dos princípios curativos das substâncias que, não crescendo ou não se produzindo em Portugal naquela época, em virtude dos seus princípios curativos e de se tratar de uma farmácia de elite, se podiam encontrar à disposição do núcleo restrito da Casa Real. 

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Where Local Meets Global: Representations of Cloth Production in the Literature of Dante and Boccaccio

Julianna Van Visco

Univ. of Columbia - Digital Dante Project

Abundant references to textiles form a rich discourse in the both the Commedia and the Decameron. By historicizing the far-reaching impact and global context of the wool industry in fourteenth century Florence, I demonstrate using a material approach how Dante and Boccaccio engage with this trade in their representation of textiles and reflect the global context of emerging markets.
Material objects are, and have always been, both indicative and constitutive of the world around them. Textiles occupy a unique position in Trecento Europe due to their central role in the economy, impact on labor hierarchies, and their position in relationship to the East. Textiles are particularly ripe for investigation because of their intimate relationship to the body (both in making and wearing) and their ability to stand as shorthand for delineating identity. Due to their value and portability, textiles—much like texts are the perfect platform to explore issues of mobility and circulation in the medieval world. Technological developments and economic factors in the late medieval period led to an explosion of textile production and consumption and what many scholars identify as the beginning of “fashion.” In the text they become receptacles for meaning; shifting sites upon which values can be (re)inscribed.
I argue the authors at hand deploy a poetics of textiles to engage in a discourse on social codes, gender, and power relations. In this paper I reconstruct a finished textile object represented in the text by tracing a historical path from creation through raw materials and production to consumption and use in order to demonstrate the cultural values of diffusion and exchange embedded in textile language.

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Innovation and Resistance: The 13th century Iberian cleric Lucas de Tuy and his arguments against the change in the depiction of Christ on the Cross

Sara Carreño López

Departamento de Historia da Arte (USC)

It is understood that from the 13th century on, in a process that began already during the prior century, there were significant changes in the way the image of the Crucifixion and Christ on the cross were depicted in Western Europe. In terms of this iconography, there was a move from the triumphant Christ to a suffering representation which includes new motifs such as the crown of thorns or a shift from four to three nails. The increasing importance that the human being acquired in these centuries was translated into an image of a dead Christ, suffering on the cross, an image that was far from the majestic and divine ideas of previous centuries. But this iconographical variation was not identically undertaken in every region of Western Europe; neither was completely accepted in some cases.
In this sense, innovations in the way dogmas were depicted were not accepted immediately, especially when it comes to one of the central tenets of the Christian faith. These changes in the Crucifixion depiction were not embraced by everyone, finding certain resistances inside the Church.  A remarkable criticism was delivered by the 13th century Iberian cleric Lucas of Tuy in his book De Altera Vita, in which we can find the Bishop’s words against the depiction of the three nails in the visual display of the Crucifixion.
This paper aims to approach this theological source to the study of the crucifixion iconography by presenting this bishop’s claims and how he argued in favour of tradition, defending it against the new rules. Thus, we will consider how transformations were accepted, showing that some historiographical commonplaces tend to create a unified reality to the whole Western Europe, producing a sort of history painted with a broad brush which usually leaves aside particular realities.

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Iberian Merchants as Global Intermediaries in Sixteenth Century Italy

James Nelson Novoa

Univ. Ottawa

Through their insertion in the international market of credit scholars of economic history have rightly seen merchant bankers as a class of individuals well placed to act as intermediaries between places given their constant mobility which mirrored the ebb and flow of credit itself. A parallel activity which has been let studied is the role of merchants as intermediaries through the exchange and sale of exotica or what passed as exotica. This paper centres itself on the role of Spanish and Portuguese merchant-bankers in sixteenth century Italy in particular, through their access to a vast array of items given the extension of their respective empires, as cultural intermediaries. In fulfilling this role they also fashioned and image of themselves as privileged purveyors of objects and knowledge which was considered odd, exotic and marvellous. 

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D. Gomes Eanes. Religious Renewal between Portugal and Italy

Paulo Catarino Lopes

IEM- FCSH NOVA; CHAM

This paper intends to give a brief view of the course of a man whose reforming action took such a wide scale, that allowed to establish a genuine dialogue between Italy and Portugal – that is, between the Crown and the papacy, between the religious and the secular – in the Quattrocento. A course that ultimately contributed significantly to integrating Portugal into the more general framework of the reform movements that had been going through Christianity since the second half of the 15th century. The idea to be analyze is, therefore, that the contribution of D. Gomes Eanes to the Reform of the Church in the Quattrocentowas effectively marked by a transnational dimension, then sustained by a necessary network of solidarities and influence.

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Between the New and the Old Worlds? Shaping an American space in the island of La Hispaniola at the end of the fifteenth century

Elena Paulino Montero

Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence/Universidad Complutense de Madrid

What has been called the Iberian worldwide diffusion had as consequence a radical change of scale in planetary interactions between people, religions and in such varied domains as art, law, urbanism and literature. These planetary interactions were characterized by a complex history of contact, transmission and transformation of artistic languages and traditions, but also isolation, conflict of rupture, that can be better understood with site-specific analysis.
The first experiences of conquest and colonization in the Americas took place in the area of the Caribbean, especially in the island of la Hispaniola, where the first Spanish settlers imposed new cities over the newly discovered territories at the end of the fifteenth century. In this context, polyglot artistic languages and multi-layered references across very different spaces articulated new forms of territorialization through urban planning and architecture.
This presentation will analyze the two first cities in the American territories: La Isabela and the city of Santo Domingo as a result of a negotiation between these polyglot previous Iberian experiences and the new realities of the American territory and society. Through this specific case-study I aim to problematize questions such us center and peripheries, specially important when analyzing a space such as the Caribbean, and the idea of the “medieval legacy” in the Americas, rather suggesting that medieval art and architecture were a fundamental constitutive part at the core of the new planetary processes at the end of the fifteenth century.

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In the heart of the debate: Portuguese in the General Councils (From Pisa to Constance)

Mário Farelo

IEM – NOVA FCSH; CEHR-UCP

This paper intends to explore the possibilities given by the identification of the Portuguese Conciliar Delegates to the Councils of Pisa (1409), Basel, Ferrara and Florence (1431–1445). Biographical data will be used to determine the existence or not of a model of recruitment for such Delegates and to engage in the discussion of how such ecumenical councils represent for them ideal opportunities for religious, political and cultural exchange. 

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The Spread of Religious Renewal in Late Medieval Portugal

João Luís Fontes

EM – NOVA FCSH; CEHR-UCP

This paper aims to present how late medieval Portugal participated in larger movements searching for religious renewal, with a significant participation of lay people, uniting Franciscan and Dominican observance and new religious orders (Hieronymites, Secular Canons of Saint John the Evangelist) with other non-regular religious experiences, like the Hermits of Serra de Ossa and the communities of poor women. In common, they have their option for voluntary poverty, the search for solitude, prayer and penance, a desire for personal and communitarian renewal. But they also testify to a larger net of relationships, not yet entirely clarified, linking these initiatives to a broader peninsular and European context.

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Late medieval Religious Renewal in the light of textual communities

Gilberto Moiteiro

IEM-NOVA FCSH; Instituto Politécnico de Leiria

The purpose of this paper is to establish the role of texts and literacy in a late medieval Dominican nunnery, as well as the contribution of literary skills to the reformation movement. Empirical evidence shows that the spiritual economy of female Dominican convents was strengthened by an unprecedented usage of texts, which appear to have been crucial for life in these communities. The use of written material increased dramatically. Non-liturgical texts were written mainly in the Portuguese vernacular, while Latin was employed almost exclusively for liturgical texts. For Portugal, the better-documented case is the Nunnery of Jesus in Aveiro. However, there is evidence of other female convents having adopted similar practices. It will become clear that events in Portugal were consistent with those described by several authors in other Christian territories, particularly when it came to the female branch of the Order of Preachers.

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